Opportunistic Fungi

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1

opportunistic fungi

immunocompromised; many tissues, types of infections, ubiquitous; septate hyphae, conidia, conidiophores, and conidiospores both macro and micro, and are yeast-like; all considered pathogens since they cause infection in immunocompromised patients

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ubiquitous

environmental saprobes; infections can become systemic

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monomorphs

same structural characteristics under all conditions

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capitate

cottony/woolly/fluffy/hairy

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umbonate

peak or slight elevation

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unbilicate

depressed indentation

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cerebriform

well defined depressed indentation

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rugose

wrinkled or folded and striated

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verrucose

mountainous, wrinkled, or convoluted and striated

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capitate-velvet

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capitate-woolly

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capitate-cottony

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capitate-flat, umbonate

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rugose-wrinkled

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rugose-leathery

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verrucose-granular

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verrucose-granular

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umbonate-granular with white periphery

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rugose-tan, cottony

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umbonate-tan-yellow, powdery

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verrucose-granular, white

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dematiaceous

pigmented, melaninized molds

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hyaline

transluscent, nonpigmented molds

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Aspergillus spp.

capable of disseminated infection and a wide variety of other infections; sinus fungus ball; associated with nail, eye, sinus, and respiratory

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A. fumigatus

white to blue-green colony; dichotomous branching of hyphae; short or long conidiospores with a foot cell at base

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A. niger

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yellow colonies that turn black; darkly pigmented spores (macroscopic)

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uniceriate

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one layer of phialides

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biseriate

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one layer of phialides and one layer of metulae

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Aspergillus

characteristic microscopic: septated hyphae, uniceriate or biseriate with conidia spores building off the phialides

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A. flavus

uni/viseriate phialides, round, radiate vesicle, yellow-green front and gold to red/brown back

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A. fumigatus

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uniserate, round columnar vesicle, blue-green/gray font, and white to tan back

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A. niger

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biserate, round radiate vesicle, black front, white to yellow back

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Penicillium

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Penicillium

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consists of branches, metulae, and phialides microscopically; species based on branches; brush-like conidiophores

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Penicillium

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septated hyaline hyphae

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Paecilomyces spp.

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rapid growers; powdery, velvety, gold-green; rugose

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Paeciliomyces

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septated hyphae; sterigmata holds conidia

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Scopulariopsis spp.

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rugose, velvety, powdery

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Scopulariopsis spp.

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chains of single-celled conidia with annelids (solitary or in groups) that build the conidia (globes); tinker toys in a row

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Fusarium

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soil fungus found globally; opportunistic; causes mycoses in burn victims

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Fusarium

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macro and micro conidia-fusiform to sickled or banana shaped

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Acremonium spp.

skin and nail infection, mycetoma, mycotic keratitis; appear yeast-like macroscopically, white to gray, rose to red to orange; small septate hyphae that produce tube-like phialides bearing clusters of conidia at the top

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Acremonium spp.

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Purpureocillium spp.

previously Paecilomyces; nail infections; lilac colored colonies to shades of lavender; chlamydospores are absent

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Mucorales

saprophytic fungi; previously Zygomycota; sexual reproduction by zygosporangia and zygospores, asexual by sporangium, sporangiospores, stalk, and columella; aseptate hyphae, suspensor cells

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anamorph state

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stage seen clinically; aseptated hyphae with rhizoids coming from behind it

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saprophytic fungi

characterized by arrangement and number of sporangiospores; shape, color, presence or absence of collumella, presence or absence and shape of apophyses, presence of absence of rhizoids, and growth temperature-25, 37, or 42

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Apophysomyces complex

consists of three species-ossiformis, trapeziformis, and variabilis

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Cunninhamella bertholletiae

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Mediterranean and subtropical zones, only species of the seven in genus known to cause disease; often associated with trauma and immunosuppression; white to grey, rapidly growing colonies

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Cunninghamella bertholletiae

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Lichtheimia crymbifera

thermotolerant species formerly part of Absidia; plant and soil borne; principle human and animal pathogen; fast growing floccose, white to gray with age

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Lichtheimia corymbifera

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Basidiobolus ranarum

entomophthoromycosis-basidiobolomycosis; decaying fruit and vegetable matter; commensal in GI tract of frogs, toads, and lizards; moderately fast growing at 30; beaklike appendages on zygospores; two types of asexual conidia: primary-globose, secondary-clavate, not swollen

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Basidiobolus ranarum

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Conidiobolus coronatus

27 species; multinucleate primary and secondary conidia; on top of unbranched conidiophores, prominent papilla, human and animal opportunistic; usually restricted to nose and face

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Conidiobolus coronatus

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Mucor indicus

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colonies are deep-yellow, optimal growth at 42; sporangiophores are hyaline, have long branches; globose to ellipsoidal sporangiospores; chlamydospores produced in light; zygospores have stellate spines and unqual suspensor cells; no rhizoids

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Mucor

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Rhizomucor

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presence of rhizoids, thermophilic, two species potential human and animal pathogens-miehei and pusillus

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Rhizomucor pusillus

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cutaneous, pulmonary and disseminated infection; grey to grey-brown mycelium; hyaline to yellow-brown sporangiophores which are globose to subglobose; septum below sporangium; chlamydospores absent; zygospores rough-walled reddish to brown to black; optimum temperature 35-55

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Rhizomucor pusillus

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Rhizomucor pusillus

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Rhizopus spp.

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mild in immunocompetent hosts; fatal in immunocompromised-patients inhale spores found everywhere; rhinocerebral form invades sinus and travels to brain and patient can become comatose

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Rhizopus spp.

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pigmented rhizoids; nodal origin of sporangiophores above rhizoids; apophysate and columellate; globose sporangia; form umbrella after sporulation; sporangiospores hyaline to brown; cottony growth that appears white and develops into grey or yellowish brown with sporulation

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Rhizopus arrhizus

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Rhizopus microsporus

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Saksenaea vasiformis

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flask shaped sporangia with columella; dark pigmented rhizoids; associated with cutaneous or subcutaneous lesions caused by traumatic puncture; fast growing; downy white with no reverse color

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Saksenaea vasiforms

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Syncephalestrum racemosum

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flower like arrangements on tubular sporangia radiating from branching sporangiophore which are irregular in size and arranged in chains; aseptate but cross septa may develop in sporangiophores; rudimentary rhizoids may form, poorly developed; found in soil and dung in tropical and subtropical regions; sometimes confused with Aspergillus; colonies fluffy white to grey then dark grey when sporangia develop

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Pneumocystis spp.

opportunistic atypical fungi in immunocompromised; leads to interstitial plasma cell pneumonia and pneumocytosis; similar to parasite: trophozoite -> precyst (sporocyte) -> cyst (diagnostic form); cell membrane contains cholesterol making it different from other fungi

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Pneumocystis spp.

has worldwide distribution; most common opportunistic infection in patients with HIV/AIDS; infection is species specific

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P. jiroveci

Pneumocystis species that infects humans

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Pneumocystis spp.

inhaled organism that adheres to pneumocytes where it replicates extracellularly; interstitial mononuclear inflammatory response occurs leading to nonproductive cough, fever, dyspnea, chest tightness, night sweats

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respiratory specimens

specimen required for Pneumocystis

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1,3 Beta-D Glucan

carbohydrate associated with Pneumocystis that can help diagnose

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Pneumocystis trophozoites

predominant form but difficult to visualize; have flexible walls; outnumber cysts 10-1

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Pneumocystis cysts

usually seen on smears; spherical to concave; uniform size, do not bud and do contain intracystic bodies

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Pneumocystis jiroveci

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zygospore

resting spore that contains zygotes formed during the sexual phase of a mold's life cycle

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sporangiospore

Formed by successive cleavages within a sporangium (outer sac or covering), asexual life cycle

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conidia

spores formed by fungi that are formed without the protection of a sac; a sexual

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ascospore

haploid spore produced within the ascus of ascomycetes, sexual reproduction mating

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basidiospore

Spores produced in the basidia of basidiomycetes during sexual reproduction

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heterotrophic

Organisms that obtain their nutrients or food from consuming other organisms.