Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology: Midterm Review-Mycology Flashcards


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1

mycosis

disease caused by a fungus

2

yeast

most creamy or pasty on micro media; small, single celled fungi that divide by budding generally

3

mold

filamentous fluffy cottony with aerial structures

4

eukaryotic

cells are complex nucleus membrane bound cellular organelles

5

dematiaceous melaninized

darkly pigmented fungi

6

hyaline fungi

non-pigmented or light colored fungi

7

fungi-like bacteria

bacteria that demonstrate fungal like characteristics

8

chitin

a structural polysaccharide, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls

9

monomorphic

having a single form

10

polymorphic

having various forms

11

dimorphic fungi

may grow as mold or yeast and often associated with disease in humans

12

thermally dimorphic fungi

molds at low temp. 25-30 degrees celsius, but convert to yeast at body temp 35-37 celsius; typically infect lungs

13

superficial fungi

affect skin and hair

14

dermatophytes

affect the skin, hair and nails and are keratinophilic

15

subcutaneous fungi

introduced into subcutaneous tissue during trauma; leads to ulcers and abscesses

16

systemic fungi

inhalation of dust that contains fungus; tend to be more serious; usually host's immune system is compromised

17

opportunistic fungi

are normal microbiota for many individuals and can cause infection under usual conditions, often immunocompromised patients

18

fungi imperfecti (deuteromycota)

no sexual stage has been observed in their life cycles; without information on the sexual cycle, taxonomist cannot assign them to a taxonomic group; by their vegetative characteristics and production of asexual spores, most of these fungi seem to belong with sac fungi

19

binomial nomenclature

classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name, genus and species

20

capsules

outer coating of eukaryotic cells made of polysaccharide and protein; also found in some prokaryotes (bacteria)

21

Beta D glucan

carbohydrate found in cell walls of fungi, can be used in diagnostics to identify nonspecific fungi in a sample

22

ergosterol

major cell membrane sterol found in fungi

23

zygospore

resting spore that contains zygotes formed during sexual phase of mold's life cycle

24

sporangiospores

formed by successive cleavages within a sporangium (outer sac or covering), asexual life cycle

25

conidia

spores formed by fungi that are formed without the protection of a sac; asexual

26

ascospores

haploid spore produced within ascus of ascomycetes, sexual reproduction mating

27

basidiospores

spores produced in basidia during sexual reproduction

28

saprophytic

of some plants or fungi; feeding on dead or decaying organic matter, generally viewed as contaminants

29

heterotrophic

organisms that obtain their nutrients or food from consuming other organisms

30

optimal temperature for fungi

25-30 degrees Celsius

31

40-50%

humidity for fungi

32

aerobic

process that requires oxygen

33

anaerobic

process that does not require oxygen

34

microaerophilic

a microorganism that requires very little free oxygen

35

rapid growers

<5 days saprobes, opportunistic fungi, yeasts

36

intermediate growers

6-10 days; opportunistic fungi; dermatophyes; subcutaneous fungi

37

slow growers

11-21 days; some cultures are kept up to 6 weeks in clinical lab

38

septate hyphae

hyphae with cross walls (septations)

39

aseptate hyphae (coenocytic)

contain no cross-walls or septations

40

Pauciseptate hyphae

partial septation

41

mycelium (mycella)

densely branched network of the hyphae of a fungus

42

vegetative mycelium

the portion of mycelium that anchors the mold and absorbs nutrients

43

aerial mycelium

the more visible surface growth of fungal hyphae; bears reproductive structures; characterized as filamentous hairy or wooly

44

reproductive mycelium

differentiation to support fruiting bodies, generally aerial hyphae

45

pseudohyphae

buds may not separate but instead form a chain of cells

46

conidiophore

spores produce not in a sac-like structure