Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology: Midterm Review-Parasites Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 3 months ago by Pmborton
5 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Babesia spp

tick vector, maltese cross (4 ring forms), ring forms

2

Plasmodium vivax disease

benign tertian malaria includes splenomegaly; cycle 44-48 hours

3

Plasmodium falciparium disease

malignant tertian malaria; one of the most fatal; cycle 36-48 hours

4

Plasmodium malariae disease

quartan malaria includes nephrotic syndrome; cycle 72 hours

5

Plasmodium ovale disease

simian malaria; cycles every 48 hours

6

Plasmodium knowlesi disease

malignant tertian malaria as fatal as falciparum; cycles 24 hours

7

erythrocytic cycle of malaria

blood stream of infected individual

8

exoerythrocytic cycle of malaria

liver of the infected individual

9

Plasmodium trophozoite

early and late trophozoites (merozoites) invade RBC's

10

merozoite

the infective stage of the plasmodial life cycle, infects red blood cells of the host organism, immature trophozoite becomes mature developing shizont

11

schizont

trophozoite with dividing nuclei

12

mature schizont

contains mature merozoites that are capable of invading red blood cells

13

gametocytes

mature male and female merozoites

14

P. falciparium identification

single to multiple rings per cell, some appear heavy, (headphones) applique forms and crescent shaped gametocytes-no other stages seen until critical/fatal; schizonts not seen in peripheral blood (300 fields reviewed)

15

P. knowlesi identification

single ring per cell, band form trophozoites, shizont with 8 merozoites (300 fields reviewed)

16

P. malariae identification

band form trophozoites with thick ring with large nucleus if ring form, 6-12 merozoites, no Schuffners dots (300 fields reviewed)

17

P. vivax identification

Schuffners dots, 12-24 merozoites, amoeboid trophozoites (300 fields reviewed)

18

P. ovale identification

enlarged RBC's with fimbriated edges, schizont 8-12 average, rosette or irregular clusters (300 fields reviewed)

19

African sleeping sickness

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (West Africa); T. brucei rhodosiense (East Africa); trypomatigotes only

20

Chagas' disease

American trypanosomiasis; T. cruzi trypomatigotes in blood (C-shaped), amastigotes in tissue, Reduviid bug (triatomid)

21

Leishmania spp

transmission via sandfly, amastigotes in tissue, no blood forms

22

flagellate (protozoan)

divide by binary fission, have flagella one more

23

amoeba (protozoan)

move by pseudopods

24

ciliates (protozoan)

Balantidium coli, macro (kidney shaped), micro (nucleus), cytosome, ciliated; feces, also found in pigs

25

Naegleria fowleri (amoeba)

CSF infection, not always seen in preparations, but motile trophozoites may be visible; if none seen diagnosis based on patient history or exposure (water source) or chemistry (CSF glucose normal to decreased, protein increased) (PAM)

26

acanthomoeba (amoeba)

eye infections, often associated with poor hygiene and contact lenses (GAE), corneal scrapings

27

Dientamoeba fragilis (flagellate)

no cyst stage, two nuclei in aorund 60% (shaped like amoeba)

28

Trichomonas vaginalis

flagellate found in urine vaginal and prostatic discharge; axostyle, 5 flagella, undulating membrane 1/2 length of body

29

Toxoplasma gondii

coccidia, serological diagnosis generally; cat feces

30

Entamoeba histolytica/dispa/moshkovsii (amoeba)

cyst: centralized karyosome (most common), 4 nuclei, chromotoidal bars if present, round or blunt ended; trophozoite single nucleus, centralized karyosome; extraintestinal hepatic amebic abscess

31

Entamoeba coli (amoeba)

cyst: karyosome diffuse, usually eccentric, nuclei 8 (may have up to 16); chromotoidal bars if present sharp and splintered; trophozoite single nucleus eccentric karyosome

32

Entamoeba hartmanni (amoeba)

cyst is small compact, centrally located karyosom, 4 nuclei, rounded or elongated chromatoid bodies; trophozoite nucleus single small central or eccentric karyosome

33

Iodamoeba butschilli (amoeba)

cyst large glycogen vacuole, single nucleus, shape may be round but generally oval; trophozoite large karyosome may be visible, nuclear membrane may not be, large glycogen vacuole

34

Giardia duodenalis (flagellate)

cyst oval to eliptical with 2-4 nuclei, fibrils visible; trophozoite pear shaped with 2 large nuclei, axoneme, and flagella may be visible (falling leaf motility)

35

Chilomastix mesnili (flagellate)

cyst is lemon shaped with hyaline knob, shepherd's crook may be visible (cystomal fibril); trophozoite pear shaped, cytostome or spiral groove, single nucleus with eccentric karyosome

36

Cryptosporidium spp (coccidia/sporozoa)

modified acid fast staining to visualize, sporocytes passed in feces or found in respiratory system (ingested or inhaled)

37

Sarcocystis spp (sporozoa)

oocysts and sporocysts passed in feces, intermediate hosts (cattle and pigs) (ingested)

38

parasite

lives in or on the host; utilizes host for nutrients and life cycle; causes damage

39

obligate parasite

depends entirely on the host for all survival requirements, reproduction, causes damage; cannot live outside of host

40

facultative parasite

all of the requirements of a parasite, but does not require the current host for completion of the reproductive cycle

41

endoparasite

lives inside host and has all properties of a parasite

42

ectoparasite

lives on the host with all properties of a parasite

43

infeciton

internal invasion resulting in immune response

44

infestation

external growth, minimal or no immune response

45

autoinfection

self-infection

46

reinfection

infection with a repeat parasite, but a new incidence

47

hyperinfection

repeated reinfection with larvae from a parasite already in the host; generally results in a high parasitic load

48

ova and parasite

1. wet prep 2. concentration 3. smear and permanent stain (trichome); recommend collection on 3 consecutive days

49

stool specimens and recovery

liquid-protozoal trophozites (motility in unpreserved specimens); formed stool, cysts only

50

direct wet mount (O&P)

assess worm burden, quick diagnosis of heavily infected patients, organism motility (trophozoites); may also see cysts

51

concentration (O&P)

for the detection of cysts, larvae, eggs; trophozoites do not always survive well in these preparations, some may; can do a post- wet prep

52

permanent stain (O&P)

generally trichome 1. used to identify both cysts and trophozoites for protozoans 2. provides permanent record 3. provides contrasting colors between debris and parasites to improve identification

53

reporting (O&P)

1. report all parasites (non-pathogenic included) to rule out others-some require quantification 2. report organism (to appropriate level genus and species), and life cycle stage or form 3. do not quantify (since from concentration) 4. report charcot-leyden crystals (presence not quantity)

54

acid fast (parasites)

coccidian oocysts using a modified acid fast (Kinyouns method) or modified safranin method (hot method)

55

Ascaris lumbricoides (nematodes)

large intestinal round worm, ascariasis or ectopic ascariasis (biliary or lungs)

56

Ascaris lumbricoides (morphology)

male adults-curved tail; ovum-mammilated (rough exterior) or decorticated (smooth, nonmammilated); diagnosis through eggs in feces or adult worms in sputum (mouth or nares)

57

Enterobius vermicularis (nematode)

pinworm, female migrates out of the anus and lays eggs; ingestion or inhalation of eggs, perianal itching-mild to self-limiting

58

Enterobius vermicularis (morphology)

scotch tape or paddle collection, oval to elongate, slightly flattened on one side; adult female pin shaped tail, gravid females filled with eggs

59

Strongyloides stercoralis (nematode)

thread worm, filariform larvae penetrates, rhabditiform larvae free from outside of host; chronic diarrhea, pulmonary symptoms uncommon; may have pruritic, serpiginous or erythematous rashes due to larval migration; hyperinfection and autoinfection may occur; dissemination may result in pneumonia, sepsis or meningitis

60

Strongyloides stercoralis (morphology)

diagnosis of Rhabditiform larvae in feces; short buccal capsule, large bulb esophagus, prominent genital primordium; eggs not generally seen in feces

61

Trichuris trichuria (nematode)

whipworm, no tissue migration; ingestion of eggs (food or water); eggs pass in feces, worm burrows in intestine and feeds on tissue secretions; dysentery and rectal prolapse

62

Trichuris trichuria (morphology)

diagnostic stage, barrel or football-shaped, polar plugs, thick shelled; this particular egg should be quantified, as small numbers rarely need treatment

63

hookworms (nematodes)

larvae penetrate skin, migrate to lungs, swallowed and attach to the GI mucosa, ingest blood (iron deficiency anemia); indistinguishable eggs; Nectar americanus (new world), Ancylostoma duodenale (old world)

64

hookworms (morphology)

diagnostic stage, oval, fat, clear area between thin shell and embryo; may be able to see multicellular embryo inside; rhabditiform larvae have long buccal capsule with small genital primordial

65

Trichinella spiralis (tissue nematode)

trichinosis by contaminated or undercooked meat; mammals definitive host (pigs, domestic, or bears, walrus, wild game); deposit in striated muscle (skeletal muscle); diagnosis from muscle biopsy of encysted muscle tissue; spiral looking

66

filarial nematodes (blood)

transmission generally by blood-sucking arthropods (insects); adult worms pathogenic to humans; larvae termed microfilariae

67

filariasis

infection by microfilariae

68

elephantitis

condition where a limb or other part of the body becomes enlarged due to obstruction of lymphatics, associated with microfilariae

69

Wuchereria bancrofti (blood nematodes)

microfilariae, humans definitive host; sheathed, nuclei do not extend to tip of tail; mosquito transmission

70

Brugia spp (blood nematode)

microfilariae, sheathed, some stain and some do not, species specific; variations in subterminal or terminal nuclei based on species; mosquitp transmission

71

Onchocerca volvulus (nematodes)

microfilariae, resides in nodules of a host; transmitted by black fly; subcutaneous infectinos in teh eyes, skin, lymphadenopathy; diagnosis includes excised nodules or microfilariae in blood or urine; no sheath, non-nucleated tail

72

Loa loa (nematodes)

microfilariae, may cause swelling and edema in the extremities, subcutaneous infections in the eyes (migration), tabinid or deerfly; microfilariae may be visible in blood

73

Mansonella spp (nematode)

microfilariae found in skin, blood, or other tissues depending on species; transmitted by biting midges (insects); may cause swelling and edema in extremities or other body parts; no sheath, tail nuclei morphologies differ with species

74

tapeworms (cestodes)

dorsoventrally flattened, segmented, hermaphroditic, intestinal or tissue

75

scolex (cestode)

attachment (head), rostellum (beak-like projection) that may be armed with hooks or unarmed

76

stroblia (cestode)

body or trunk (all proglottic) a proglottid is an individual segment or unit

77

gravid proglottid

reproductive segment filled with eggs

78

Dipyllobothrium latum (cestode)

broad fish tapeworm, may cause megaloblastic anemia, eggs and proglottids may be seen in feces; humans definitive host, fish reservoir; worm-elongated scolex, 2 lateral groups and bothria; proglottids wider than long, central rosette uterine branching; eggs small knob on opposite end of operculum (abopercular knob)

79

Dipylidium caninum (cestode)

dog or cat tapeworm, accidental ingestion of fleas; proglottids ressemble cucumber seeds when wet or grains of rice when dryin feces; double pored; eggs are packets wtih 5-15 eggs

80

Hymenolepsis diminuta (cestode)

rat tapeworm, infection from contaminated grains from grain beetles, recovery of eggs in stool, similar to nana; striated outer membrane, clear area between oncosphere and shell, no polar filaments

81

Hymenolepsis nana (cestode)

dwarf tapeworm, person to person or fecal oral transmission of infected arthropod or egg; eggs in stool, adult worm or proglottids rarely found; eggs oval with thin shell, oncosphere (inner membrane) has to poles with 4-8 polar filaments; autoinfection

82

Taenia saginata (cestode)

beef tapeworm, human infection by ingesting raw or undercooked meat; eggs indistinguishable between species; radially striated may contain sex refractile hooks; scolex is four large suckers, rostellum unarmed; proglottid 12-30 lateral uterine branches

83

Taenia solium (cestode)

port tapeworm, human infection by ingesting raw or undercooked meat; eggs indistinguishable between species; radially striated may contain six refractile hooks; scolex is four large suckers, rostellum armed with hooks; proglottid 7-13 lateral uterine brancehs

84

Echinococcus spp. (tissue cestode)

hydatid cyst (fluid filled structure); brood capsules that contain miniature larval tapeworms; burst (hydatid sand-grainy tapeworm sediment); granulosus

85

trematode (intestinal)

fluke-leaf-like, unsegmented, dosroventrically flattened, most are hermaphroditic; oral sucker at anterior end and ventral sucker; humans definitive host, harboring the adult worm; require one or more intermediate hosts

86

Fasciolopsis buski (trematode)

giant intestinal fluke, resides in the intestine, elongate to oval adult with no cephalic cone; eggs are rod, operculated, yellow brown and difficult to distinguish from hepatica

87

Heterophyes heterophyes (trematode)

intestinal fluke resembles Metagonimus yokogawai, smallest to infect humans; pickled or uncooked fish, resides in small intestine; body covered in spines; eggs tiny small opercular shoulders and abopercular knob

88

Metagonimus yokogawai (trematodes)

intestinal fluke most common in far east; raw or undercooked fish; resembles heterophyes slightly larger; eggs also resemble heterophyes

89

Clonorchis sinensis (trematode)

Chinese liver fluke caused by ingestion of infected fish; often diagnosis requires duodenal sampling; eggs are operculated with distinct shoulders; hook-like comma shaped protrusion at abopercular end

90

Fasciola hepatica

sheep liver fluke causing intermittent biliary obstruction and inflammation in host; eggs are elipsoidal and operculated; adults large flattened anterior end has cone shaped cephalic cone

91

Paragonimus westermani

oriental lung fluke may be identified fro sputum; resembles iron filings or flakes in sample; ingestion of infected raw crabs or crayfish

92

Schistosoma japonicum

oriental blood fluke, vessels in intestine, minute lateral spine (may be absent) oval to spherical; eggs in stool

93

Schistosoma mansoni

blood fluke, vessels in intestine (inferior mesenteric vein); elongated large lateral spine; eggs in stool

94

Schistosoma haematobium

blood fluke (bladder cancer), vessels in bladder, urine or bladder biopsy, terminal spine, no operculum

95

buccal capsule

oral cavity of roundworms

96

genital primordium

a cluster of cells in the body of the hookworm and strongyloides rhabditiform larvae serving as the opening of the reproductive system

97

copulatory bursa

a specialized copulatory structure located at the posterior end of male nematode which is used to hold the female during copulation

98

Filariform larva

the infective third stage larva of certain nematodes

99

Bothria

shallow sucking grooves on some cestodes

100

Hexacanth embryo

a tapeworm egg containing a larvae with six hooks

101

strobili

body of a tape worm

102

operculum

lid or opening on a helminth egg

103

ocular larva migrans (OLM)

unilateral granulomatous retinitis caused by tissue nematodes

104

hydrocele

scrotal swelling caused by a collection of lfuid

105

chyluria

the presence of chyle in the urine, giving it a milky appearance

106

hydatid cyst

the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus that may be found in the lungs or liver of livestock and humans

107

brood capsule

a structure that is formed from the germinal membrane of a hydatid cyst

108

hydatid sand

granular material consisting of free scolices, hooklets, daughter cysts, and amorphous material; found in fluid of older cysts of E. granulosus

109

Cysticerci

larval stage of tapeworms, containing single scolex within a thin walled bladder

110

uniocular cyst

single hydatid cyst

111

crespedote proglottid

stacking proglottids that appear to fit inside each other

112

egg packet

what is typically passed in feces in an animal infested with Dipylidium caninum when gravid proglottid is ruptured during defacation

113

Miracidium

a free-swimming ciliated larval stage in which a parasitic fluke passes from egg to its first host, typically a snail

114

rediae

intermediate larval stage of flukes; each has capability to produce numerous cercariae

115

cercariae

tadpole like (tail) larvae that are the final and free swimming larval stages of trematodes

116

metacercaria larval stage

encysted cercaria infective stage of trematodes

117

cholangitis

an acute inflammation of bile duct characterized by pain in the upper-right quadrant of the abdomen, fever, and jaundice

118

cholangiocarcinoma

malignant tumor of bile vessel

119

hemoptysis

coughing up blood