Human Anatomy and Physiology, Books a la Carte Edition: Chapter 4 Flashcards


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Tissue: The living fabric
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1

Which type of epithelium is often covered with a protective layer of mucus produced by goblet cells?

ciliated pseudostratified epithelium in the respiratory system

2

Which of the following is a description of a tight junction?

pattern of complementary grooves and ridges in the membranes of two adjacent cells

3

Where is transitional epithelium found in humans?

in the urinary bladder

4

From the contents of this tissue, one can produce a great amount of ATP energy.

adipose tissue

5

Collagen fibers are found in all of the following locations except

transitional epithelium.

6

Which of the following tissue types respond quickly to changes in the membrane potential?

All of the above

7

These cells are named pseudostratified because

they appear to be layered, but in fact are not.

8

This excitable tissue is characterized by having intercalated discs and striations

cardiac muscle

9

This tissue type has a mesodermal origin

skeletal muscle

10

In compact bone, the delicate canals that extend between one lacunae to another are called

canaliculi.

11

Cells that are undifferentiated and have not yet begun to perform specialized functions are known as

stem cells.

12

The material that lies between an epithelium and its underlying connective tissue is called

basement membrane

13

What is the purpose of fixing tissue for microscopic viewing?

To preserve the tissue and prevent it from deteriorating

14

What types of stains are used to stain tissue to be viewed with a transmission electron microscope?

Heavy metal stains

15

Epithelial tissue is the only tissue type that has polarity, that is an apical and bascal surface. Why is this important?

Epithelial tissue lines body cavities and covers the body's external surfaces; thus polarity with one free (apical) surface is a requirement

16

Stratified epithelia are “built” for protection or to resist abrasion. What are the simple epithelia better at?

Absorption, secretion, and filtration

Simple epithelia are built to provide for efficent absorption and filtration across their thin epithelial barriers

17

While examining a multicellular exocrine gland under the microscope, you notice that there are many cells in metaphase. Is this gland a merocrine or a holocrine gland?

This gland is a holocrine gland. Holocrine glands have the highest rate of cell division. They secretory cells rupture when secrete, and so they must be continuously replaced.

18

Which of the four basic tissue types you would find below the basement membrane?

Connective tissue

19

What are five functions of connective tissue?

1) binding and supporting, 2) protecting, 3) insulating, 4) storing reserve fuel, and 5) transporting substances within the body.

20

What are the three fibers found in connective tissues?

Collagenous fibers, elastic fibers and reticular fibers

21

Which type of connective tissue is damaged when you cut your index finger tendon?

Dense regular connective tissue is damaged when you lacerate a tendon

22

It has been observed that ageing cartilage tends to calcify or ossify, and its cells die. What survival needs are not being met in these cells and why is that so?

Oxygen and nutrient needs are not being met because the calcified cartilage matrix is too hard to allow them to reach the cells by diffusion. Cartilage is avascular.

23

You are looking at muscle tissue through the microscope and you see striped branching cells that connect with one another. What type of muscle are you viewing?

Cardiac muscle cells have striations and branching cells

24

Which muscle type(s) is voluntary? Which is injured when you pull a muscle while exercising?

Skeletal muscle tissue is voluntary and is injured when you pull a muscle

25

How does the extended length of a neuron’s processes aid its function in the body?

with extended processes, a neuron can conduct electrical signals a great distance within the body

26

What type of membrane consists of epithelium and connective tissue, and lines body cavities open to the exterior?

mucous membrane

27

What type of membrane lines the thoracic walls and covers the lungs?

serous membrane

28

What are the three main steps of tissue repair?

1. inflammation

2. organization and permanent repair via regeneration

3. fibrosis

29

Why does deep injury to the skin result in abundant scar tissue?

the worse the injury the more tissue is destroyed requiring more scar tissue replacement

30

Connective tissue

tissue type composed largely of nonliving extracellular matrix; important to protection and support

31

Muscle tissue

The tissue immediately responsible for body movement

32

Nervous tissue

The tissue that enables us to be aware of the external environment and to react to it

33

Epithelium

The tissue that lines body cavities and covers surfaces

34

An epithelium that has several layers, with an apical layer of flattened cells, is called?

Squamous

35

The gland type that secretes products such as milk, saliva, bile, or sweat through a duct is?

an exocrine gland

36

The membrane which lines body cavities that open to the exterior is?

mucous membrane

37

Scare tissue is a variety of

Connective tissue

38

Primary cell type in connective tissue proper

fibroblast

39

Primary cell type in cartilage

chondroblast

40

Primary cell type in bone

Osteoblast

41

Name the two major components of the extracellular matrix

Ground substance - interstitial fluid, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans

Fibers - collagen, elastic and reticular

42

Areolar

forming the soft packing around organs

43

Elastic cartilage

Supporting the ear pinna

44

Elastic connective tissue

Forming "stretchy" ligaments

45

Mesenchyme

First connective tissue in the embryo

46

Fibrocartilage

forming the intervertebral disc

47

Hyaline Cartilage

covering the ends of bones and joint surfaces

48

Areolar connective tissue

main components of subcutaneous tissue

49

What is the function of macrophages?

overall body defenses and act in the immune response

50

Tissue

are groups of closely associated cells that are similar in structure and perform a common function

51

Stratisfied Squamous

protection

52

Simple Columnar

absorption

53

Simple Squamous

filtration

54

Simple cuboidal

secretion

55

Areolar

Binding

56

Cartilage

support

57

Bone

protection

58

Adipose

insulation

59

blood

transportation

60

Ectoderm

epithelium and nervous

61

Mesoderm

connective, muscle and epithelium

62

Endoderm

epithelium