Human Anatomy and Physiology, Books a la Carte Edition: Chapter 4 Flashcards
Which type of epithelium is often covered with a protective layer of mucus produced by goblet cells?
ciliated pseudostratified epithelium in the respiratory system
Which of the following is a description of a tight junction?
pattern of complementary grooves and ridges in the membranes of two adjacent cells
Where is transitional epithelium found in humans?
in the urinary bladder
From the contents of this tissue, one can produce a great amount of ATP energy.
Collagen fibers are found in all of the following locations except
Which of the following tissue types respond quickly to changes in the membrane potential?
All of the above
These cells are named pseudostratified because
they appear to be layered, but in fact are not.
This excitable tissue is characterized by having intercalated discs and striations
This tissue type has a mesodermal origin
In compact bone, the delicate canals that extend between one lacunae to another are called
Cells that are undifferentiated and have not yet begun to perform specialized functions are known as
The material that lies between an epithelium and its underlying connective tissue is called
What is the purpose of fixing tissue for microscopic viewing?
To preserve the tissue and prevent it from deteriorating
What types of stains are used to stain tissue to be viewed with a transmission electron microscope?
Heavy metal stains
Epithelial tissue is the only tissue type that has polarity, that is an apical and bascal surface. Why is this important?
Epithelial tissue lines body cavities and covers the body's external surfaces; thus polarity with one free (apical) surface is a requirement
Stratified epithelia are “built” for protection or to resist abrasion. What are the simple epithelia better at?
Absorption, secretion, and filtration
Simple epithelia are built to provide for efficent absorption and filtration across their thin epithelial barriers
While examining a multicellular exocrine gland under the microscope, you notice that there are many cells in metaphase. Is this gland a merocrine or a holocrine gland?
This gland is a holocrine gland. Holocrine glands have the highest rate of cell division. They secretory cells rupture when secrete, and so they must be continuously replaced.
Which of the four basic tissue types you would find below the basement membrane?
What are five functions of connective tissue?
1) binding and supporting, 2) protecting, 3) insulating, 4) storing reserve fuel, and 5) transporting substances within the body.
What are the three fibers found in connective tissues?
Collagenous fibers, elastic fibers and reticular fibers
Which type of connective tissue is damaged when you cut your index finger tendon?
Dense regular connective tissue is damaged when you lacerate a tendon
It has been observed that ageing cartilage tends to calcify or ossify, and its cells die. What survival needs are not being met in these cells and why is that so?
Oxygen and nutrient needs are not being met because the calcified cartilage matrix is too hard to allow them to reach the cells by diffusion. Cartilage is avascular.
You are looking at muscle tissue through the microscope and you see striped branching cells that connect with one another. What type of muscle are you viewing?
Cardiac muscle cells have striations and branching cells
Which muscle type(s) is voluntary? Which is injured when you pull a muscle while exercising?
Skeletal muscle tissue is voluntary and is injured when you pull a muscle
How does the extended length of a neuron’s processes aid its function in the body?
with extended processes, a neuron can conduct electrical signals a great distance within the body
What type of membrane consists of epithelium and connective tissue, and lines body cavities open to the exterior?
What type of membrane lines the thoracic walls and covers the lungs?
What are the three main steps of tissue repair?
2. organization and permanent repair via regeneration
Why does deep injury to the skin result in abundant scar tissue?
the worse the injury the more tissue is destroyed requiring more scar tissue replacement
tissue type composed largely of nonliving extracellular matrix; important to protection and support
The tissue immediately responsible for body movement
The tissue that enables us to be aware of the external environment and to react to it
The tissue that lines body cavities and covers surfaces
An epithelium that has several layers, with an apical layer of flattened cells, is called?
The gland type that secretes products such as milk, saliva, bile, or sweat through a duct is?
an exocrine gland
The membrane which lines body cavities that open to the exterior is?
Scare tissue is a variety of
Primary cell type in connective tissue proper
Primary cell type in cartilage
Primary cell type in bone
Name the two major components of the extracellular matrix
Ground substance - interstitial fluid, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans
Fibers - collagen, elastic and reticular
forming the soft packing around organs
Supporting the ear pinna
Elastic connective tissue
Forming "stretchy" ligaments
First connective tissue in the embryo
forming the intervertebral disc
covering the ends of bones and joint surfaces
Areolar connective tissue
main components of subcutaneous tissue
What is the function of macrophages?
overall body defenses and act in the immune response
are groups of closely associated cells that are similar in structure and perform a common function
epithelium and nervous
connective, muscle and epithelium