Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology: Nematodes: Blood and Tissue Flashcards


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1

filarial nematodes

transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods; larval stages of insect vectors (flies, midge, mosquitos); adult worm in lymphatic system; females produce microfilariae

2

microfilariae

morphology includes presence or absence of sheath and behavior of tail nuclei

3

Wuchereria bancrofti

sheath present; tail nuclei that do not extend to tip; loosely packed nuclear column

4

Loa Loa

sheath present; tail nuclei that extend to tip in continuous row

5

Brugia malayi

sheath present; tail nuclei that extend to tip but are not continuous; two nuclei at tip; 4-5 subterminal and 2 terminal nuclei

6

O. volvulus

sheath absent; no tail nuclei; tail bent or flexed

7

M. ozzardi

sheath absent; tail nuclei that do not extend to tip

8

M. perstans and M. streptocerca

sheath absent; tail nuclei that extend to tip

9

Wuchereria bancrofti

bancroftian filariasis or elephantitis

10

Brugia malayi

Malayan filariasis and elephantitis

11

Loa Loa

eye worm endemic to West and Central Africa; transmitted by tabanid or deerfly; vector is female black fly (Chrysops); lays eggs and leaves near running water for larvae to feed on and develop emerging as flying insect (females require blood meal, males are pollen feeders); microfilariae circulate in blood and reside in subconjunctiva between 12-2pm

12

Onchocerca volvulus

river blindness

13

Wuchereria bancrofti

found in tropical regions worldwide; mosquito (Culex fatigans, Anopheles, and Aedes) vector; nocturnal (10-4), and day and afternoon in Pacific islands

14

Brugia malayi

limited to Asia; mosquito (Anopheles and Mansonia) vector; nocturnal (rice fields) and nonperiodic in swampy forests

15

Wuchereria bancrofti clinical presentation

asymptomatic or subclinical microfilaremia- incidental finding in blood; inflammation, swelling, fever, and enlarged lymph nodes; bancroftian filariasis (hydrocele, chyluria, lymph fluid infiltrates urine), elephantiasis, and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (allergies and respiratory complications)

16

Wuchereria bancrofti diagnosis

blood, urine, hydrocele, chyle collected based on periodicity and stained with Giemsa, Wright, or Hematoxylin; serology, molecular, and ultrasound available

17

Brugia spp.

pathology and symptoms similar to W. bancrofti and do not involve genital vessels; malayi (Far East) and timori (Indonesia); transmitted by Anopheles and Mansonia mosquito; nocturnal (rice fields) and nonperiodic (swampy forests)

18

B. timori

sheathed worm with nuclei that extend to the tip non-continuously; has 5-8 subterminal and 1 terminal nucleus

19

Brugia diagnosis

blood collected based on periodicity (usually nocturnal), stained with Giemsa, Wright, or Hematoxylin

20

molecular diagnostics

differentiates between Brugia and Wuchereria

21

Onchocerca volvulus

resides in tissue nodules of host; vector is female black fly (Simulium); lay eggs attaching to rocks in water emerging as flying insects; females require blood meal, males are nectar feeders; Africa and Central and South America

22

Onchocerca volvulus clinical presentation

skin infections, river blindness, lymphadenopathy, and cachexia systemic disease

23

Onchocerca volvulus diagnosis

excised nodule or skin snip, microfiliariae identified in blood or urine; viewed in cornea and anterior chamber of eye using slit lamp; serology (not specific), and molecular-skin snips

24

Loa loa clinical presentation

asymptomatic microfilaremia; subconjunctival migration of adult worm; episodic calabar swelling; long-term can lead to nephropathy, encephalopathy, cardiomyopathy

25

Mansonella streptocerca

found in Africa; found in skin and causes itchy rash; transmitted by biting midges; unsheathed with nuclei that extend to end of tail; Shepherd's crook tail

26

Mansonella perstans

occurs in Africa and South America; resides in pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities; transmitted by biting midges; unsheathed with nuclei that extend to end of tail

27

Mansonella ozzardi

occurs only in Americas from Mexico to South America and Caribbean; found in the blood; transmitted by biting midges; unsheathed with nuclei that does not extend to tip

28

Mansonella clinical presentation

most patients asymptomatic; transient swelling in arms, face and others, pruritus, fever, headache, arthralgia, neurological or psychological symptoms, upper right abdominal pain, and occasional pericarditis or hepatitis; Cullicoides is vector