Chapter 14 Endocrine System

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1

What is the functions of endocrine system?

  • Its hormones help regulate metabolic processes involving carbs, proteins and fats
  • Plays an important role in growth and reproduction
  • Helps regulate water and electrolyte balance
  • Helps the body meet the demands of infection, trauma, and stress
2

How does the endocrine system communicate?

  • Through hormones
3

What are chemical messengers that influence or control activities of other tissues and organs?

  • Hormones
4

What are the two classifications of hormones?

  1. Proteins
  2. Steroids
5

What glands secrete steroids?

  • Adrenal cortex
  • Sex glands
6

What are the two types of hormone receptors sites?

  1. Membrane receptors
  2. Intracellular receptors
7

What is the lock and key relating to hormones?

  • Each receptor has specific shape into which only certain hormones can fit
8

How is the anterior pituitary gland controlled?

  • Controlled by releasing hormones of the hypothalamus
9

What is another name for anterior pituitary?

  • Adenohypophysis
10

What is another name for posterior pituitary?

  • Neurohypophysis
11

Which pituitary gland does not release hormones?

  • Posterior pituitary
12

What are the hormones of the anterior pituitary?

  1. TSH
  2. ACTH
  3. Growth hormone
  4. Gonadotropins
    • FSH and LH
  5. Prolactin
13

What are the hormones of the pituitary gland??

  • Andiuertic (ADH)
  • Oxytocin
14

What is the growth hormone called?

  • Somatotropin
15

What parts of the growth hormone affect?

  • Affects bones, cartilage, and skeletal muscles
16

What hormone affects electrolyte balance?

  • Growth hormone
17

What hormone stimulates the liver to produce somatomedin?

  • Growth hormone
18

What hormone stimulates growth of mammary glands?

  • Prolactin
19

What is another name for prolactin?

  • Lactogenic hormone
20

What is the target gland for TSH?

  • Thyroid gland
21

What is the target gland for ACTH?

  • Adrenal cortex
22

What is the target gland for gondatropic hormone?

  • Gonads or sex glands (ovaries and testes)
23

What are the two gonadotropic hormones?

  1. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  2. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
24

What does the ADH do?

  • Released to conserve water
  • Causes kidneys to reabsorb water from urine and return it to the blood
25

What is the primary target organ for ADH?

  • Kidney
26

What is the target organ for oxytocin?

  • uterus and mammary glands in females
27

What does oxytocin do?

  • Stimulates uterine contraction and stimulates contraction of smooth muscle around mammary ducts to release milk
28

What hormones are released from the thyroid gland?

  • TSH releases T3 and T4
  • Calcitonin
29

What does T3/T4 do?

  • Regulate metabolism
30

What is deficiency of T3/T4?

  • Hypothyroidism
31

What is excess of T3/T4?

  • Hyperthyroidism
32

What does calcitonin do?

  • Helps regulate calcium levels in the blood and phosphate
33

What organ releases calcitonin?

  • Thyroid
34

What two hormones help regulate calcium levels?

  • Calcitonin
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
35

What does the the parathyroid glands release?

  • PTH
36

What are the three target organs of PTH?

  1. Bone
  2. Kidney
  3. Intestine
37

What hormone is going to be secreted when calcium is low?

  • PTH
38

What does the adrenal medulla secrete?

  • Catecholamines
39

What does the adrenal cortex secrete?

  • Steroids
40

What steroids are secreted from the adrenal cortex?

  • Sugar (glucocorticoids)
    • Cortisol
  • Salt (mineralocorticoids)
    • Aldosterone
  • Sex hormones
    • Testosterone
41

What is the primary target organ of aldosterone?

  • Kidney
42

What cells of the pancreas secrete hormones?

  • Islets of Langerhans
43

What cells secrete glucagon?

  • Alpha cells
44

What cells secrete insulin?

  • Beta cells
45

As blood glucose level rises, pancreas secrete ______?

  • Insulin
46

As blood glucose level falls,, pancreas secrete _______?

  • Glucagon
47

What hormone increases blood glucose levels?

  • Glucagon