Chapter 10 Nervous System

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1

What does CNS include and where is it located?

  • Brain and spinal cord
  • Dorsal cavity
2

What does PNS include?

  • Consists of nerves that connect the CNS with the rest of the body
3

What are the three functions of the nervous system?

  1. Sensory function
  2. Integrative function
  3. Motor function
4

What are the three parts of neurons?

  1. Dendrites
  2. Cell body
  3. Axon
5

What are the treelike structures that receive signals from other neurons and then transmit the signals toward the cell body?

  • dendrites
6

Where do dendrites send the signals to?

  • Cell body
7

What structure contains the nucleus and is essential for the life of the cell?

  • Cell body
8

What is the elongated part of the neuron that conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body?

  • Axon
9

What do axon terminals store?

  • Neurotransmitters
10

What are the four parts of the axon?

  1. Myelin sheath
  2. Nodes of Ranvier
  3. Neurilemma
  4. Axon terminal
11

What structure insulates and protects the axon?

  • Myelin sheath
12

What cells produce neurilemma?

  • Schwann cells
13

What structure is the exposed or unmyelinated axonal membrane?

  • Nodes of Ranvier
14

What structure is the cytoplasm and the nuclei of the schwann cells lying outside the myelin sheath?

  • Neurilemma
15

What is another name for sensory neurons?

  • Afferent neurons
16

What is another name for motor neurons?

  • Efferent neurons
17

What type of neuron carries info from the periphery toward the CNS?

  • Sensory (afferent) neuron
18

What type of neuron carries info from CNS toward periphery?

  • Motor (efferent) neuron
19

What matter is made up of myelinated axons?

  • White matter
20

What matter is made up of unmyelinated axon?

  • Gray matter
21

What is the resting state of the action potential?

  • Polarization
22

What is the stimulated state of the action potential?

  • Depolarization
23

What is the return to resting state of the action potential?

  • Repolarization
24

What phase in the action potential does K+ leak from neuron and determine the resting membrane potential?

  • Polarization
25

What phase in the action potential does Na+ rush in and carry a positive charge?

  • Depolarization
26

What phase in the action potential does K+ rush out and decrease the positive charge?

  • Repolarization
27

What neurotransmitter is released during the action potential?

  • ACh
28

Where does the action potential start?

  • Axon's beginning
29

What are the parts of the synapse?

  • Synaptic cleft
  • Receptors
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Inactivators
30

What is the space that exists because the axon terminal of neuron A does not physically touch the dendrite of neuron B?

  • Synaptic cleft
31

What are the four major areas of the brain?

  1. Cerebrum
  2. Diencephalon
  3. Brain stem
  4. Cerebellum
32

The frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes form the_____.

Cerebrum

33

What are the four lobes of the cerebrum?

  1. Frontal Lobe
  2. Parietal Lobe
  3. Temporal Lobe
  4. Occipital
34

What lobe of the is devoted to body's motor activities?

  • Frontal lobe
35

What part of the frontal lobe is concerned with motor speech and linked to talking?

  • Broca's area
36

What lobe of the cerebrum receives sensations from the body?

  • Parietal lobe
37

What lobe of the cerebrum deals with hearing?

  • Temporal lobe
38

What lobe of the cerebrum deals vision?

  • Occipital lobe
39

What part of the brain stem controls vital functions as HR, BP, and respiration?

  • Medulla oblongata
40

The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata are referred to as the_____.

  • Brain stem
41

What part of the brain stem is known as the emetic center?

  • Medulla oblongata
42

Where is the cerebellum located?

  • Located at the base of the skull
43

What area of the brain mediates reflexes and coordinates motor activity?

  • Cerebellum
44

Excessive opioids (narcotics) depress the medulla oblongata and therefore cause...

  • Respiratory Depression
45

What area of the brain includes the thalamus and hypothalamus?

  • Diecephalon
46

The surface of the cerebrum is folded into elevations that resemble speed bumps; these speed bumps are called _____.

  • Gyrus (convolutions)
47

The medulla oblongata descends into the ___?

  • Vertebral cavity
48

In which cerebral lobe is Broca's area located?

  • Frontal
49

This structure plays a key role in personality development and emotional and behavioral expression; carries out the "executive" functions.

  • Frontal
50

What prevents some toxins from entering CNS from blood?

  • Blood brain barrier
51

What are the three layers of connective tissue that surround the brain and spinal cord?

  • Menings
  • Pia mater, arachnid mater, dura mater
52

What is the order of the menings?

  1. Pia mater
  2. Arachnid mater
  3. Dura mater
53

What part of the brain helps regulate body temp., water balance, and metabolism?

  • Hypothalamus
54

What is the blood brain barrier made up of?

  • Astrocytes