Human Anatomy & Physiology: The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus Flashcards
There are two major lobes of the Pituitary Gland. Name them.
1. Posterior Pituitary aka Neurohypophysis
2. Anterior Pituitary aka Adenohypophysis
What type of tissue is the posterior pituitary gland made of?
What neurohormones are transported and stored in the posterior pituitary?
2. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Where are the neurohormones oxytocin and ADH produced?
What is the name of the neural connection that the neurohormones travel on to their storage area in the neurohypophysis?
What is the name of the vascular connection from the anterior pituitary to the hypothalamus?
Hypophseal portal system
Hormones of the anterior pituitary are not released until the hypothalmus releases chemicals to do so. (true or false)
What are the targets and effects of Oxytocin?
Targets - uterus
Effects - causes uterine contractions
What are the targets and effects of ADH or antidiuretic hormone?
Target - kidneys
Effects - reabsorption of water
Diabetes Insipidus would be a result of hyposecretion (deficiency) of what hormone?
ADH - antidiuretic hormone (insatiable thirst)
List 6 hormones produced by the cuboidal cells of the anterior pituitary gland
1. growth hormone - GH
2. prolactin - PRL
3. lutenizing hormone - LH
4. follicle stimulating hormone - FSL
5. adrenocorticotropic hormone - ACTH
6. thyroid stimulating hormone - TSH
What is a tropic hormone?
regulates secretory action of other endocrine glands
Which hormones found in the adenohypophysis are tropic hormones?
TSH, ACTH, FSH, and LH
All hormones of the adenohypophysis activate cAMP second messenger systems at their target except this one hormone. Which is it?
What are the targets and effects of growth hormone?
targets - generalized; especially muscle and bone
effects -encourages use of fatty acids for energy
Hypersecretion of growth hormone in children results in _______?
Hypersecretion of growth hormone in adults results in _________?
How can you distinguish the difference in gigantism from acromegaly?
Acromegaly results in ABNORMAL body proportions i.e. large hands, head and feet
Hyposecretion of growth hormone in children results in ________?
What are the target and effects of ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone?
target -adrenal cortex
effect - release of cortisol or corticosteriods
What internal and external factors can cause the release of corticosteriods such as cortisol?
Fever, hypoglycemia, and stressors
What are the two gonadtropins produced in the adenohypophysis?
FSL and LH
What are the targets and effects of follicle stimulating hormone?
Targets - ovaries and testes
Effects - stimulates sperm or egg production
What are the targets and effects of lutenizing hormones?
Targets - ovaries and testes
Effects - promotes production or estrogen in females and testosterone in males
What are the targets and effects of prolactin?
targets - breasts
effects - milk production (lactation)
Hypersecretion of prolactin in males will have what effect on them?