The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus

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1

There are two major lobes of the Pituitary Gland. Name them.

1. Posterior Pituitary aka Neurohypophysis

2. Anterior Pituitary aka Adenohypophysis

2

What type of tissue is the posterior pituitary gland made of?

Neural tissue

3

What neurohormones are transported and stored in the posterior pituitary?

1. oxytocin

2. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

4

Where are the neurohormones oxytocin and ADH produced?

hypothalamus

5

What is the name of the neural connection that the neurohormones travel on to their storage area in the neurohypophysis?

Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal tract

6

What is the name of the vascular connection from the anterior pituitary to the hypothalamus?

Hypophseal portal system

7

Hormones of the anterior pituitary are not released until the hypothalmus releases chemicals to do so. (true or false)

True

8

What are the targets and effects of Oxytocin?

Targets - uterus

Effects - causes uterine contractions

9

What are the targets and effects of ADH or antidiuretic hormone?

Target - kidneys

Effects - reabsorption of water

10

Diabetes Insipidus would be a result of hyposecretion (deficiency) of what hormone?

ADH - antidiuretic hormone (insatiable thirst)

11

List 6 hormones produced by the cuboidal cells of the anterior pituitary gland

1. growth hormone - GH
2. prolactin - PRL
3. lutenizing hormone - LH
4. follicle stimulating hormone - FSL
5. adrenocorticotropic hormone - ACTH
6. thyroid stimulating hormone - TSH

12

What is a tropic hormone?

regulates secretory action of other endocrine glands

13

Which hormones found in the adenohypophysis are tropic hormones?

TSH, ACTH, FSH, and LH

14

All hormones of the adenohypophysis activate cAMP second messenger systems at their target except this one hormone. Which is it?

growth hormone

15

What are the targets and effects of growth hormone?

targets - generalized; especially muscle and bone

effects -encourages use of fatty acids for energy

16

Hypersecretion of growth hormone in children results in _______?

gigantism

17

Hypersecretion of growth hormone in adults results in _________?

acromegaly

18

How can you distinguish the difference in gigantism from acromegaly?

Acromegaly results in ABNORMAL body proportions i.e. large hands, head and feet

19

Hyposecretion of growth hormone in children results in ________?

pituitary dwarfism

20

What are the target and effects of ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone?

target -adrenal cortex

effect - release of cortisol or corticosteriods

21

What internal and external factors can cause the release of corticosteriods such as cortisol?

Fever, hypoglycemia, and stressors

22

What are the two gonadtropins produced in the adenohypophysis?

FSL and LH

23

What are the targets and effects of follicle stimulating hormone?

Targets - ovaries and testes

Effects - stimulates sperm or egg production

24

What are the targets and effects of lutenizing hormones?

Targets - ovaries and testes

Effects - promotes production or estrogen in females and testosterone in males

25

What are the targets and effects of prolactin?

targets - breasts

effects - milk production (lactation)

26

Hypersecretion of prolactin in males will have what effect on them?

causes impotence