A&P2 Final part 2

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only the new chapters- 5. Urinary System, 6. Electrolyte and Fluid Balance
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1

Put the urinary structures in order as urine is produced and eliminated from the body.

Kidneys--> ureters --> urinary bladder --> urethra

2

Urine is temporarily stored in the ………………

bladder

3

The prominent indentation on the medial surface of the kidney is the …………...

Hilum

4

The outermost layer of the kidney is called…..

Fibrous capsule

5

The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the

Renal pelvis

6

Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called

Renal pyramid

7

The functional unit of the kidney is the

nephron

8

Eighty-five percent of nephrons in the human kidney are located in the ________ and have short nephron loops.

cortex

9

Nephrons located close to the medulla with long nephron loops are called

Juxtamedullary nephrons

10

The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is

Reabsorbing nutrients

11

The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.

Papillary duct

12

The most abundant waste solute in urine is

urea

13

The process of filtration is driven by

Blood hydrostatic pressure or glomerular hydrostatic pressure

14

The amount of filtrate produced by the kidneys each minute is called the

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

15

Countercurrent multiplication takes place in the

Nephron loop

16

Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by …………..

Cotransport with Na ions

17

When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases, what will happen to urine output?

More urine is produced and the osmolarity of the urine decreases

18

What is Antidiuretic hormone?

Increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water

19

A healthy adult typically produces ________ of urine per day.

1200 mL

20

A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to

Absence of ADH

21

An X-ray image of the urinary system is called a

pyelogram

22

Please explain the sequence of Urine passes.

Collecting duct --> renal pelvis --> ureter --> bladder --> urethra

23

The ureters and urinary bladder are lined by ________ epithelium.

transitional

24

The condition called ________ is characterized by painful or difficult urination. This condition can be due to pathologic or benign causes.

dysuria

25

The inability to urinate is termed

Urinary retention

26

Name the major excretory organs of the urinary system.

The kidneys

27

What would happen to a kidney's position if the perinephric fat layer were depleted and the collagen fibers of the fibrous capsule were to become detached?

The perinephric fat helps hold the kidneys position against the posterior body wall. If it were to be depleted and fibers detached, the kidneys could drop. This may cause pain or distortion of other structures.

28

Describe filtrate.

Filtrate is similar to blood plasma, but filtrate does not contain proteins.

29

Identify the three distinct processes of urine formation in the kidney.

Filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.

30

What are the three elements that form the filtration membrane?

Fenestrated endothelium, basement membrane, and foot processes of the podocyte.

31

Describe autoregulation at the kidneys.

Autoregulation maintains an adequate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) despite changes in local blood pressure and blood flow. Dilation of afferent arterioles, constriction of efferent arterioles, and contraction of intraglomerular mesangial cells maintain GFR.

32

Define countercurrent multiplication as it occurs in the kidneys.

The exchange of substances between two adjacent nephron loop limbs containing fluid moving in opposite directions; the process enables the kidney tubules to concentrate urine

33

The thick ascending limb of the nephron loop actively pumps a substance into the peritubular fluid, what is the name of that substance?

Sodium and chloride ions into the peritubular fluid.

34

What effect does an increase in ADH levels have on the DCT?

Increased ADH levels cause the appearance of more water channels or aquaporins in the DCT; as a result, more water is reabsorbed into the peritubular fluid, which decreases the volume of water in the urine.

35

When ADH levels in the DCT decrease, what happens to the urine osmotic concentration?

Decreased ADH levels in the DCT reduce the urine osmotic concentration because there is more water in the urine; the result is a larger volume of more dilute urine.

36

Briefly explain the difference between chronic and acute renal failure.

Chronic renal failure- gradual loss of renal function

Acute renal failure- sudden loss of renal function

37

Define dialysis.

The process of using an artificial semipermeable membrane to remove wastes and retain plasma proteins from the blood of a person whose kidneys are not functioning properly.

38

What is a pyelogram?

An image of the urinary system that is obtained by taking an x-ray after radiopaque dye has been administered intravenously.

39

How does the urethra differ between males and females?

Male urethra is longer and transports not only urine, but also semen.

40

What has to happen to the external urethral sphincter to allow urination?

Must be consciously relaxed to allow urination.

41

Name the specialized smooth muscle of the urinary bladder, and describe its function.

The detrusor: its contraction compresses the urinary bladder and expels urine into the urethra.

42

What are the two reflexes that control urination?

Urine storage reflex and urine voiding reflex.

43

What is the term for painful or difficult urination?

dysuria

44

What do you mean by intracellular fluid (ICF)?

-Cytosol inside the cells (where potassium ion is dominant)

-Only found within the cells of the body

-contains a greater proportion of total body water than the ECF.

-ICF is inside the cell, ECF is outside cell and is also known as interstitial fluid.

45

In an adult male, the body consists of about ________ percent water.

60%

46

Which body system is not involved in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance?

All systems produce metabolic wastes and therefore are involved in fluid electrolyte balance

47

With regard to fluid balance, water gains occur primarily in the ………………..(body system)

Digestive tract

48

The principal cation in cytoplasm (or intracellular fluid) is ……………..

potassium

49

Which mineral ion is required as a cofactor for hemoglobin synthesis?

Copper (Cu)

50

The ions in highest concentration in the extracellular fluid are sodium and ……………….

chloride

51

Consuming a meal high in salt will lead to ………………..blood volume

Temporary increase in blood volume

52

Which hormone stimulates the thirst mechanism?

ADH

53

The normal pH range for extracellular fluid is

7.35-7.45

54

When the blood pH falls below 7.35, ________ results.

acidemia

55

Excess hydrogen ion is eliminated from the body largely by……………(organ)

The kidneys

56

Prolonged vomiting can result in metabolic ………………..

alkalosis

57

A person who consumes large amounts of sodium bicarbonate ("baking soda") to settle an upset stomach risks leads to ……………metabolic pH

metabolic alkalosis

58

Which solid component makes up most of the body mass?

proteins

59

Describe a fluid shift.

The rapid movement of water between the ECF and ICF in response to an osmotic gradient.

60

What effect does aldosterone have on sodium ion concentration in the ECF?

Aldosterone causes increased urinary sodium retention and thus increases the sodium ion concentration in the ECF.

61

Which organs are primarily responsible for regulating the potassium ion concentration in the ECF?

The kidneys

62

Identify factors that cause potassium excretion.

Potassium excretion increases as potassium concentrations increase in the ECF, under aldosterone stimulation, and when the pH of the ECF increases

63

Define hypokalemia and hyperkalemia.

Hypokalemia- a condition characterized by blood K+ levels below 3.5 mEq/L.

Hyperkalemia- a condition characterized by blood K+ above 5.0 mEq/L.

64

What intermediate compound formed from water and carbon dioxide directly affects the pH of the ECF?

Carbonic acid (H2CO3)

65

Summarize the relationship between PCO2 levels and pH.

An inverse relationship exists between PCO2 levels and pH

66

Identify the body's three major buffer systems.

1- The phosphate buffer system

2- the protein buffer system

3- the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system

67

Describe metabolic acidosis.

Results from the production of large numbers of fixed and metabolic acids, from the depletion of bicarbonate reserve caused by the inability to excrete hydrogen ions at the kidneys, or from bicarbonate loss.

68

Describe metabolic alkalosis.

Results from the removal of large numbers of hydrogen ions from body fluids when bicarbonate ion concentrations become elevated.

69

If the kidneys are conserving HCO3- and eliminating H+ in acidic urine, which is occurring: metabolic alkalosis or metabolic acidosis?

Metabolic acidosis

70

What would happen to the blood PCO2 of a patient who has an airway obstruction?

Increase (resulting in respiratory acidosis)

71

How would a decrease in the pH of body fluids affect the respiratory rate?

Would cause an increase in respiratory rate

72

Define hyponatremia and hypernatremia.

Hyponatremia-low ECF Na+ concentration (from overhydration or inadequate salt intake

Hypernatremia-high ECF Na+ concentration (dehydration is the most common cause)

73

What is relation between sodium and potassium in terms of fluid exchange?

Two potassium ions move INTO the cell and three sodium ions move OUT of the cell (into the ECF). This keeps an overall negative resting membrane potential within the cytoplasm of the cell.