A and P

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1

Atoms consist of

Protons: positive electrical charge
Neurons: electrically neutral (uncharged)
Electrons: negative electrical charge

2

Protons

positive electric charge

3

Neurons

electrically neutral (uncharged)

4

Electrons

negative electrical charge

5

Ions

atoms that either gain or lose electrons

6

Electrolytes

substances that release ions in water

7

Acids

electrolytes that release hydrogen ions in water

8

Bases

electrolytes that release ions that bond with hydrogen ions

9

Cytoplasm

fluid-like material in which the organelles are suspended

10

Kerbs cycle

breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen

11

Plasma volume

3 L

12

Diffusion

movement from an area of higher concentration to lower

13

Osmosis

movement of a solvent from an area of low concentration to one of high concentration

14

Tonicity

concentration of a solution, or ability to draw or give water

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Crenation

too much water moves out of a cell and shrinks

16

Lysis

too much water enters a cell and it bursts

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Endocytosis

moves particles in

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Exocytosis

moves particles out

19

Epithelial tissues

cover body surfaces, cover and line internal organs, and make up the glands.

20

Connective tissues

widely distributed throughout the body, filling the internal spaces, and function to bind, support, and protect body structures.

21

Muscle tissue

contractile tissue, and includes the skeletal muscles of the body, the heart, and the muscular walls of hollow organs.

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Nervous tissues

conduct electrical impulses that allow communication between body structures and control body functions.

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Three types of muscle tissue

smooth, skeletal, cardiac

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Two basic type of cells

neurons, neuroglia or glia cells

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Neurons

basic structure of neural tissue

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Neuroglia/glia cells

divide and support nervous tissue components

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Apoptosis

normal cell death

28

Epidermis

most superficial layer of the skin

29

Dermis

second layer

30

Fascia

subcutaneous layer

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Deep fascia

below the subcutaneous layer

32

Two types of glands under the skin

sebaceous and sweat

33

Sebaceous

gland found in dermis and secret oil

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Sweat

gland that produces sweat for cooling

35

Two types of sweat glands

merocrine and apocrine

36

Merocrine

predominant sweat gland, responds to body temp, found in forehead, neck, back, palms and soles

37

Apocrine

genitalia, axillae, anus

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Axial skeleton

skull, thoracic cage, vertebral column

39

Appendicular skeleton

shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, upper and lower extremity bones

40

Cartilage

covers ends of the bones where joints form, allows smooth movement

41

Tendons

connect muscle to bones

42

Ligaments

connect bones to each other

43

Epiphysis

End of each long bone

44

Metaphysis

between epiphysis and diaphysis

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Diaphysis

shaft of long bone

46

Somatic nervous system

regulates voluntary activities

47

Autonomic nervous system

controls involuntary activities

48

Nerves

carry impulse to and from the brain

49

Three basic part of a neuron

dendrite, cell body, axon

50

Neuron communication

communicate by releasing neurotransmitters

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Axon communicatiion

send to signal to target tissues or other neurons

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Types of neurotransmitters

excitatory and inhibitory

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Excitatory

initiate an impulse

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Inhibitory

stopping the impulse

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5 main nerve plexuses

cervical, brachial, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal plexuses.

56

Thyroid gland

large gland at the base of the neck

57

Thymus gland

located in the mediastinum just behind the sternum

58

Blood proteins

albumins, globulins, fibrinogen

59

Epicardium

outter layer of the heart

60

Myocardium

middle layer of the heart

61

Endocardium

inner layer of the heart

62

Four valves of the heart

two antrioventricular/two semilunar

63

Cardiac output

stroke volume × heart rate

64

Stroke volume

amount of blood ejected per contraction

65

Ejection fraction

percentage of blood that leaves the heart each time it contracts

66

Afterload

force against which the ventricles must contract to eject blood

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Coronary artery

how oxygenated blood reaches the heart

68

Left coronary artery

supplies the left ventricles, interventricular septum, and part of right ventricle

69

Right coronary artery

supplies blood to the walls of the right atrium and ventricle, left ventricle, and portions of the conduction system.

70

Arterial system

blood from heart to tissue

71

Venous system

returns blood from tissues to heart

72

Microcirculation

exchange of nutrients and cellular waste products between blood and tissue

73

Conducting arteries

transport blood under high pressure

74

Distributing arteries

supply individual organs and larger amounts of stomach muscles

75

Arterioles

blood is released to capillaries

76

Venules

smallest venous vessels

77

Pulmonary circulation

transports oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium

78

Systemic circulation

transports blood from body tissues to right atrium

79

Lymphatic system

removal and recovery of fluid from tissues for water balance
production and circulation of lymphocytes
distribution of various products unable to enter the bloodstream directly

80

Lymphatic vessels

carry fluid away from the tissues.

81

Upper airway

nasal passage, mouth, nasopharynx, oropharynx, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx

82

Lower airway

trachea, bronchus, bronchoiles

83

Oropharynx

oropharynx begins at the level of the soft palate and extends to the epiglottis.

84

Laryngopharynx

extends from the epiglottis to the top of the esophagus.

85

Tidal volume

amount of air moved in a single breath

86

Inspiratory reserve volume

additional amount of air that can be inhaled after normal tidal volume has been reached

87

Expiratory reserve volume

maximum amount of air you can breathe out

88

Residual volume

air that remains in the lungs to keep them open

89

Vital capacity

amount of air moved with maximum inspiration and expiration

90

Anatomic dead space

little to no alveoli

91

Physiologic dead space

damaged alveoli

92

Minute volume

respiratory rate × Tidal volume

93

Ventilation

process of moving air in and out of the lungs

94

Boyle’s law

pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume

95

Intrapleural pressure

pressure between the pleura of the lungs, exhalation ends when intrapleural pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure

96

External respiration (pulmonary)

exchange of gases between the alveoli of the lungs and the RBCs traveling through the pulmonary capillaries.

97

Internal respiration (cellular)

gases are exchanged between blood cells and tissues in the bloodstream.

98

Diffusion

oxygen transfer from air into the capillaries in the alveoli

99

Alimentary canal

extends from the mouth to the anus and includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, rectum, and anus.

100

Mucosa

carries out secretion and absorption

101

Submucosa

carries away absorbed materials

102

Muscular layer

provides movement of tube

103

Serosa

protects underlying tissues

104

Left upper quadrant (LUQ)

stomach, spleen, some of colon and small intestine

105

Left lower quadrant (LLQ)

descending and sigmoid parts of the colon

106

Right upper quadrant (RUQ)

liver, gallbladder, some of colon and small intestine

107

Right lower quadrant (RLQ)

cecum, ascending colon, appendix

108

Oogenesis

process of egg cell formation

109

Menarche

onset of first menses, which occurs when a girl reaches childbearing age, between the ages of 11 and 14 years.