Human Anatomy & Physiology: Test 2 Lecture Flashcards
TRUE OR FALSE
An intact basement membrane is required to prevent the spread of pathogens and neoplastic cells.
The epithelial type that has a single layer of cells resting on a basement membrane with an irregular arrangement of nuclei is what?
Pseudostratified Ciliated columnar
The cell junction that is located on the lateral surface on an epithelial cell; intermediate fibers, and the protein cadherin is what?
The cell junction that is noted for a channel created by the what?
The cell junction that prevent the separation of the epithelial cell from the basement membrane is what?
The tissue from which all other connective tissue eventually arises is what?
Connective tissue with a clear, liquid matri that flows in lymphatic vessels is what?
Connective tissue consisting of several kinds of cells, containing all three fiber types randomly arranged and found in the subcutaneous layer deep to the skin is what?
Areolar Connective Tissue
A loose connective tissue specialized for triglyceride storage is what?
Tissue that contains reticular fibers and reticular cells and forms the stroma(soft internal skeleton) of certain organs such as the spleen is what?
Reticular loose connective Tissue
Tissue found in the lungs that is strong and can recoil back to its original shape after being stretched is what?
Elastic Connective Tissue
Tissue with irregularly arranged collagen fibers found in the dermis of the skin is what?
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
Tissue that affords flexibility at joints and reduces joint friction is what?
Bundles of collagen arranged in parallel patterns; Compose tendon and ligaments is what?
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
Tissue that forms the internal framework of the body and works with skeletal muscle to generate movement is what?
Tissue that contains a network of elastic fibers, providing strength, elasticity, and maintenance of shape; One location is the external ear
Connective tissue with formed elements suspended in a liquid matrix called plasma is what?
The mot abundant cell in connective tissue that is responsible for laying down the connective tissue matrix and fibers is what?
The basic cell of loose areolar connective tissue is what?
What is formed by chondroblasts and covers the ends of long bones and many structures of the respiratory tract?
The joint capsule is composed of what?
Dense irregular connective tissue
Cartilage tissue are likely to be slow in healing following an injury because what?
The lack of direct blood supply
In the repair process of skin and bone, the process by which nutrients and oxygen are supplied to fibroblasts and osteoblasts are called what?
Intervertebral disc are made up of what?
Articular cartilage at the ends of bones are made up of what?
Hyaline articular cartilage
The most abundant type of cartilage in the body is what?
The blood-brain barrier is an excellent example of which of the following types of cell junctions?
TRUE OR FALSE
The basement membrane is made up of two components. The basal lamina is secreted by the epithelial cells above. The reticular lamina is secreted by the connective tissue layer below.
Epithelial tissue consists of what?
Covering or lining epithelium and grandular epithelium
Transitional epithelium is classified as what?
The epithelium type that has a single layer of cell resting on a basement membrane with an irregular arrangement of nuclei is what?
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar epthelium
The cell junction that is located on the lateral surface of an epithelial cell and has a protein plaque, intermediate fibers, and the protein cadherin is what?
Goblet cells secrete what?
What area would you find transitional epithelial cells?
Ureters and bladder
What area would you find simple squamous epithelial cells?
Air Sacs(alveoli) of the lungs
What are would you find simple cuboidal epithelial cells?
What area would you find simple columnar epithelial cells?
What area would you find Pseudostratified columnar epthelial cells?
What are the epithelial cells that are noted for secretion and absorption?
Simple cuboidal and Simple Columnar
What layer of epithelium skin is not present in all tissues?
As cells are pushed from the deeper portion of the epidermis toward the surface what happens?
The cells die
Exposure to ultraviolet light causes the skin to darken by stimulating the production of what?
Skin cells play an important role in the production of what vitamin?
The deepest cells of the epidermis make up what layer?
What type of gland is associated with a hair follicle?
The type of epidermal cell that produces the fibrous protein that gives the epidermis its protective coating is the what?
Melanocytes reside in which layer of the skin?
The layer of the skin that is most associated with "waterproofing" is what?
The correct order of strata of the skin from the deepest to superficial is what?
Stratum lucidem(not always present)
The langerhans' cell in the dermis is actually what?
The type of gland that is abundant throughout the body, including the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, and exits via pores on the skin surface is what?
Eccrine sweat glands
The area of the hair follicle that supplies nutrients via blood vessels to the growing hair is what?
Temperature regulation, protection and sensation are functions of what?
What serves as a protective function due to sensory receptors located in the dermis?
What layer of the epidermis is most associate with withstanding shearing forces?
The dermal connective tissue at the base of hair follicle is termed a what?
What layer of the epidermis seals the wound moving from outermost edge inward?
The basale layer
Scar tissue forms at the site of the dermal injury providing strength but often lacking what?
New blood vessels form to carry oxygen and nutrients to the site in cases of wounds that what?
Extend deep into the dermis layer
What is most suited for areas of the body which require support of delicate structures such as small blood vessels?
Reticular Connective Tissue
What is most suite in areas of the body which require great strength and flexibility?
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
What is widely distributed in the body as it contains all type of connective tissue fibers or strength, elasticity and support?
Loose Areolar Connective tissue
What is the primary cell that helps repair the dermal layer?
Exocrine glands secrete their products where?
Into a duct or lumen
What shapes are acinar cells?
What are termed simple vs. compound based upon amount of branching
What pair of bone cells are most similar in function?
Osteoblasts and Osteocytes
What type of bone is composed of trabecule?
The primary ossification center of fetal bones is located in what region of the long bones?
The hormone that works in an opposite manner to parathyroid hormone is called what?
Osteocytes communicate with each other how?
What type of bone is embedded in a tendon?
The fibrous connective tissue between muscle and bone is called what?
During childhood bone grows in width by the process of what?
What is an example of a bone that forms by endochondral ossification?
The vertebrae is classified as what type of bone?
Bone forming cells are called what?
If blood calcium levels decrease, parathyroid levels do what?
The connective tissue fibers that connect the periosteum to the bone is called what?
The cell processes of an osteocytes lie in what site?
What is the name of the part of a long bone covered by hyaline articular cartilage?
What structures can be found in a Haversian/(central) canal?
Nerves, arteries and veins
The structural unit of compact bone is the what?
Blood vessels in a Volkman's Canal(central) run in what direction to the blood vessels in a Haversian(perforating) canal?
The lamelae in an osteon all run in what direction?
The two major ions that comprise bone are called what?
Calcium and Phosphorus
In adults the red bone marrow is most abundant in what?
Epiphyseal spongy bone
Cartilage and bone occupy small chambers called what?
Signs and Symptoms
Typically tall and thin body
Weakened aorta which can rupture
Support for bones, cartilage and cornea of the eye
Supports for skin, tendons, blood vessels, and heart valves
Support for cartilage, bone, skin and blood vessels
Viscous, slippery substance that binds cells together, lubricates joints and maintains eyeball shape
The cell ruptures in order to release its secretions; The cell is destroyed so you have to make a new one.
Secretions are released in secretory vesicles via exocytosis
The simple squamous epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels
The simple squamous epithelium that lines serous membranes
Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types; cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and some white blood cells
Areolar loose connective tissue
Wraps and cushions organs and is locate under the epithelia body
Areolar loose connective tissue
Matrix as in areolar, but very sparse; closely packed adipocytes, or fat cells,have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplets
Adipose loose connective tissue
Provides reserve food fuel and is located under skin; around kidneys and eyeballs
Adipose loose connective tissue
The process of forming scar tissue is termed what?
Parafllicular cells (located in the thyroid but totally separate from thyroid hormone producing cells) synthesize and secrete what?
Fibroblast synthesize what?
When a bone develops from a fibrous membrane, the process is called _________ ______________, and the bone is called a _________ __________.
Bone development by replacing hyaline cartilage is called _________ _________, and the resulting bone is called a ___________ or ___________, bone
Cartilage or endochondral
What results in the formation of cranial bones of the skull and the clavicle?
In flat bones, the spongy bone is called what?
What refers to a group of diseases in which bone resorption outpaces bone deposit?
Cartilage cells undergo mitosis in what zone?
Older cartilage cells en large in what cell?
The matrix becomes calcified; cartilage cells die; matrix begins deteriorating in what zone?
New bone formation is occurring in what zone?
What zone is the cartilage relatively inactive?
What is it called when the edges of the wound are brought together by sutures, staples or other means used to close surgical incisions. Only small amounts of granulation tissue need be formed.
Healing by first intention
What is it called when the wound edge remain separated, and the gap is bridged by relatively large amounts of granulation tissue; the manner in which unattended wounds heal.
Healing by second intention
Abnormal proliferation of connective tissue during healing of skin wounds; results in large, unsightly mass of scar tissue at the skin surface. What is this called?
What is a nutritional deficiency caused by lack of adequate vitamin C needed to synthesize collagen called?
Signs and symptoms
blood vessel disruption, delay in wound healing, weakness of scar tissue, and loosening of teeth
What transports respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes and other substances and is located within blood vessels
What transit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors(muscle and glands) which control their activity.
Where is nervous tissue located?
Brain, spinal cord, and nerves
What is long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells; with obvious stiations?
What has the function of voluntary movement; locomotion; manipulation of the environment; facial expression; voluntary control?
Where are skeletal muscles located?
skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to skin
What is branching, striated, generally uninucleate cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions (intercalated discs)
What has the function as it contracts, it propels blood into the circulation; involuntary control?
Where is cardiac muscle located?
ONLY in the walls of the heart
What is spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei; no striations; cells arranged closely to form sheets?
Smooth muscle cells
What has the function; Propels substances or objects along internal passageways; involuntary control
Smooth muscle Cells
Where are smooth muscle cells located?
Mostly in walls of hollow organs
Where is loose reticular connective tissue located?
Where is dense regular connective tissue located?
Tendons, most ligaments,aponeruroses
What has the function: attaches muscles to bones or to muscles; attaches bones to bones; withstanding great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction?
Dense regular connective tissue
What is able to withstand tension exerted in many directions; provides structural strength?
Dense irregular connective tissue
Where is Dense irregular connective tissue located?
Fibrous capsules of organs and joints; dermis of skin; submucosa of digestive tract
Inflammation sets the stage.
Organization restores the blood supply.
Regeneration and fibrosis effect permanent repair.
Theses are all steps to what?
A delicate pink tissue composed of several elements which contain capillaries that grow in from nearby areas and lay down a new capillary bed is called what?
Tissue trauma causes injured tissue cells, macrophages, mast cells and others to release inflammatory chemicals, which cause the capillaries to dilate and become very permeable.
Leaked clotting proteins construct a clot, which stops the loss of blood, holds the edges of the wound together, and effectively walls in, or isolates, the injured area. What is this stage?
The clot is replaced by granulation tissue, which restores the vascular supply.
Fibroblasts produce collagen fibers that bridge the gap.
Macrophages phagocytize cell debris.
Surface epithelial cells multiply and migrate over the granulation tissue. What is this phase called?
The fibrosed area matures and contracts; the epithelium thickens.
A full regenerate epithelium with an underlying are of scar tissue results. what is this phase called?
What kind of cell is shaped like a spiky heimsphere and functions as a sensory receptor for touch?
What kind of cell is star shaped arise from bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. It functions to ingest foreign substances and are key activators of our immune sytstem.
Eccrine and Apocrine glands are what kinds of glands?
What kinds of glands occur all over the body surface except the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet?
What is an avascular, keratinized sheet of stratified squamous epithelium?
What is composed mainly of dense, irregular connective tissue, is well supplied with blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves?
The external ear and the epiglottis is made up of what?
The pubic symphysis and the meniscus cartilage is made up of what?
A hematoma forms.
Fibrocartilaginous callus forms.
Bony callus forms.
Bone remodeling occurs.
These are stages of what?