Human Anatomy & Physiology: Test 2 Lecture Flashcards


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1

TRUE OR FALSE
An intact basement membrane is required to prevent the spread of pathogens and neoplastic cells.

True

2

The epithelial type that has a single layer of cells resting on a basement membrane with an irregular arrangement of nuclei is what?

Pseudostratified Ciliated columnar

3

The cell junction that is located on the lateral surface on an epithelial cell; intermediate fibers, and the protein cadherin is what?

Desmosome

4

The cell junction that is noted for a channel created by the what?

Gap junction

5

The cell junction that prevent the separation of the epithelial cell from the basement membrane is what?

Hemidesmosome

6

The tissue from which all other connective tissue eventually arises is what?

Mesenchyme

7

Connective tissue with a clear, liquid matri that flows in lymphatic vessels is what?

Lymph

8

Connective tissue consisting of several kinds of cells, containing all three fiber types randomly arranged and found in the subcutaneous layer deep to the skin is what?

Areolar Connective Tissue

9

A loose connective tissue specialized for triglyceride storage is what?

Adipose Tissue

10

Tissue that contains reticular fibers and reticular cells and forms the stroma(soft internal skeleton) of certain organs such as the spleen is what?

Reticular loose connective Tissue

11

Tissue found in the lungs that is strong and can recoil back to its original shape after being stretched is what?

Elastic Connective Tissue

12

Tissue with irregularly arranged collagen fibers found in the dermis of the skin is what?

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

13

Tissue that affords flexibility at joints and reduces joint friction is what?

Fibrocartilage

14

Bundles of collagen arranged in parallel patterns; Compose tendon and ligaments is what?

Dense Regular Connective Tissue

15

Tissue that forms the internal framework of the body and works with skeletal muscle to generate movement is what?

Bone

16

Tissue that contains a network of elastic fibers, providing strength, elasticity, and maintenance of shape; One location is the external ear

Elastic Cartilage

17

Connective tissue with formed elements suspended in a liquid matrix called plasma is what?

Blood

18

The mot abundant cell in connective tissue that is responsible for laying down the connective tissue matrix and fibers is what?

Fibroblast

19

The basic cell of loose areolar connective tissue is what?

Fibroblast

20

What is formed by chondroblasts and covers the ends of long bones and many structures of the respiratory tract?

Hyaline cartilage

21

The joint capsule is composed of what?

Dense irregular connective tissue

22

Cartilage tissue are likely to be slow in healing following an injury because what?

The lack of direct blood supply

23

In the repair process of skin and bone, the process by which nutrients and oxygen are supplied to fibroblasts and osteoblasts are called what?

Angiogensis

24

Intervertebral disc are made up of what?

Fibrocartilage

25

Articular cartilage at the ends of bones are made up of what?

Hyaline articular cartilage

26

The most abundant type of cartilage in the body is what?

Hyaline Cartilage

27

The blood-brain barrier is an excellent example of which of the following types of cell junctions?

Tight Junction

28

TRUE OR FALSE
The basement membrane is made up of two components. The basal lamina is secreted by the epithelial cells above. The reticular lamina is secreted by the connective tissue layer below.

True

29

Epithelial tissue consists of what?

Covering or lining epithelium and grandular epithelium

30

Transitional epithelium is classified as what?

Stratified epithelium

31

The epithelium type that has a single layer of cell resting on a basement membrane with an irregular arrangement of nuclei is what?

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar epthelium

32

The cell junction that is located on the lateral surface of an epithelial cell and has a protein plaque, intermediate fibers, and the protein cadherin is what?

Desmosome

33

Goblet cells secrete what?

Mucous

34

What area would you find transitional epithelial cells?

Ureters and bladder

35

What area would you find simple squamous epithelial cells?

Air Sacs(alveoli) of the lungs

36

What are would you find simple cuboidal epithelial cells?

Kidney tubules

37

What area would you find simple columnar epithelial cells?

GI tract

38

What area would you find Pseudostratified columnar epthelial cells?

Upper airways

39

What are the epithelial cells that are noted for secretion and absorption?

Simple cuboidal and Simple Columnar

40

What layer of epithelium skin is not present in all tissues?

Stratum Lucedium

41

As cells are pushed from the deeper portion of the epidermis toward the surface what happens?

The cells die

42

Exposure to ultraviolet light causes the skin to darken by stimulating the production of what?

melanin

43

Skin cells play an important role in the production of what vitamin?

Vitamin D

44

The deepest cells of the epidermis make up what layer?

Stratum Basale(germinativum)

45

What type of gland is associated with a hair follicle?

Sebaceous gland

46

The type of epidermal cell that produces the fibrous protein that gives the epidermis its protective coating is the what?

Keratinocyte

47

Melanocytes reside in which layer of the skin?

Stratum basale(germinativium)

48

The layer of the skin that is most associated with "waterproofing" is what?

Stratum granulosum

49

The correct order of strata of the skin from the deepest to superficial is what?

Stratum basale(germinativium)
Stratum spinosum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum lucidem(not always present)
Stratum corneum

50

The langerhans' cell in the dermis is actually what?

Macrophage

51

The type of gland that is abundant throughout the body, including the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, and exits via pores on the skin surface is what?

Eccrine sweat glands

52

The area of the hair follicle that supplies nutrients via blood vessels to the growing hair is what?

Papilla

53

Temperature regulation, protection and sensation are functions of what?

The skin

54

What serves as a protective function due to sensory receptors located in the dermis?

Integumentary System

55

What layer of the epidermis is most associate with withstanding shearing forces?

Stratum spinosum

56

The dermal connective tissue at the base of hair follicle is termed a what?

Papilla

57

What layer of the epidermis seals the wound moving from outermost edge inward?

The basale layer

58

Scar tissue forms at the site of the dermal injury providing strength but often lacking what?

Flexibility

59

New blood vessels form to carry oxygen and nutrients to the site in cases of wounds that what?

Extend deep into the dermis layer

60

What is most suited for areas of the body which require support of delicate structures such as small blood vessels?

Reticular Connective Tissue

61

What is most suite in areas of the body which require great strength and flexibility?

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

62

What is widely distributed in the body as it contains all type of connective tissue fibers or strength, elasticity and support?

Loose Areolar Connective tissue

63

What is the primary cell that helps repair the dermal layer?

Keratinocyte

64

Exocrine glands secrete their products where?

Into a duct or lumen

65

What shapes are acinar cells?

Round

66

What are termed simple vs. compound based upon amount of branching

Glands

67

What pair of bone cells are most similar in function?

Osteoblasts and Osteocytes

68

What type of bone is composed of trabecule?

Spongy bone

69

The primary ossification center of fetal bones is located in what region of the long bones?

Diaphysis Region

70

The hormone that works in an opposite manner to parathyroid hormone is called what?

Calcitonim

71

Osteocytes communicate with each other how?

Gap junctions

72

What type of bone is embedded in a tendon?

Sesamoid bone

73

The fibrous connective tissue between muscle and bone is called what?

Tendon

74

During childhood bone grows in width by the process of what?

Appositional growth

75

What is an example of a bone that forms by endochondral ossification?

Femur

76

The vertebrae is classified as what type of bone?

Irregular

77

Bone forming cells are called what?

Osteoblasts

78

If blood calcium levels decrease, parathyroid levels do what?

Increase

79

The connective tissue fibers that connect the periosteum to the bone is called what?

Sharpey's fibers

80

The cell processes of an osteocytes lie in what site?

Caniliculi

81

What is the name of the part of a long bone covered by hyaline articular cartilage?

Metaphysis

82

What structures can be found in a Haversian/(central) canal?

Nerves, arteries and veins

83

The structural unit of compact bone is the what?

Osteon

84

Blood vessels in a Volkman's Canal(central) run in what direction to the blood vessels in a Haversian(perforating) canal?

Perpendicular

85

The lamelae in an osteon all run in what direction?

different

86

The two major ions that comprise bone are called what?

Calcium and Phosphorus

87

In adults the red bone marrow is most abundant in what?

Epiphyseal spongy bone

88

Cartilage and bone occupy small chambers called what?

Lacunae

89

Signs and Symptoms
Typically tall and thin body
Blurred vision
Weakened aorta which can rupture
Hypermobile joints

Marfan Syndrome

90

Support for bones, cartilage and cornea of the eye

Keratan Sulfate

91

Supports for skin, tendons, blood vessels, and heart valves

Dermatan sulfate

92

Support for cartilage, bone, skin and blood vessels

Chondroitin Sulfate

93

Viscous, slippery substance that binds cells together, lubricates joints and maintains eyeball shape

Hyaluronic Acid

94

The cell ruptures in order to release its secretions; The cell is destroyed so you have to make a new one.

Holocrine

95

Secretions are released in secretory vesicles via exocytosis

Merocrine

96

The simple squamous epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels

Endothelium

97

The simple squamous epithelium that lines serous membranes

Mesothelium

98

Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types; cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and some white blood cells

Areolar loose connective tissue

99

Wraps and cushions organs and is locate under the epithelia body

Areolar loose connective tissue

100

Matrix as in areolar, but very sparse; closely packed adipocytes, or fat cells,have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplets

Adipose loose connective tissue

101

Provides reserve food fuel and is located under skin; around kidneys and eyeballs

Adipose loose connective tissue

102

The process of forming scar tissue is termed what?

Fibrosis

103

Parafllicular cells (located in the thyroid but totally separate from thyroid hormone producing cells) synthesize and secrete what?

Calcitonin

104

Fibroblast synthesize what?

Collagen

105

When a bone develops from a fibrous membrane, the process is called _________ ______________, and the bone is called a _________ __________.

Intramembranous ossification
and
membrane bone

106

Bone development by replacing hyaline cartilage is called _________ _________, and the resulting bone is called a ___________ or ___________, bone

Endochondral ossification
and
Cartilage or endochondral

107

What results in the formation of cranial bones of the skull and the clavicle?

Intramembranous ossification

108

In flat bones, the spongy bone is called what?

diploe

109

What refers to a group of diseases in which bone resorption outpaces bone deposit?

Osteoporosis

110

Cartilage cells undergo mitosis in what zone?

Proliferation

111

Older cartilage cells en large in what cell?

Hypertrophic

112

The matrix becomes calcified; cartilage cells die; matrix begins deteriorating in what zone?

Calcification

113

New bone formation is occurring in what zone?

Ossification

114

What zone is the cartilage relatively inactive?

Resting

115

What is it called when the edges of the wound are brought together by sutures, staples or other means used to close surgical incisions. Only small amounts of granulation tissue need be formed.

Healing by first intention

116

What is it called when the wound edge remain separated, and the gap is bridged by relatively large amounts of granulation tissue; the manner in which unattended wounds heal.

Healing by second intention

117

Abnormal proliferation of connective tissue during healing of skin wounds; results in large, unsightly mass of scar tissue at the skin surface. What is this called?

Keloid

118

What is a nutritional deficiency caused by lack of adequate vitamin C needed to synthesize collagen called?

Scurvy

119

Signs and symptoms
blood vessel disruption, delay in wound healing, weakness of scar tissue, and loosening of teeth

Scurvy

120

What transports respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes and other substances and is located within blood vessels

blood

121

What transit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors(muscle and glands) which control their activity.

Nervous tissue

122

Where is nervous tissue located?

Brain, spinal cord, and nerves

123

What is long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells; with obvious stiations?

Skeletal muscle

124

What has the function of voluntary movement; locomotion; manipulation of the environment; facial expression; voluntary control?

Skeletal musce

125

Where are skeletal muscles located?

skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to skin

126

What is branching, striated, generally uninucleate cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions (intercalated discs)

Cardiac muscle

127

What has the function as it contracts, it propels blood into the circulation; involuntary control?

Cardiac muscle

128

Where is cardiac muscle located?

ONLY in the walls of the heart

129

What is spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei; no striations; cells arranged closely to form sheets?

Smooth muscle cells

130

What has the function; Propels substances or objects along internal passageways; involuntary control

Smooth muscle Cells

131

Where are smooth muscle cells located?

Mostly in walls of hollow organs

132

Where is loose reticular connective tissue located?

Lymphnoids

133

Where is dense regular connective tissue located?

Tendons, most ligaments,aponeruroses

134

What has the function: attaches muscles to bones or to muscles; attaches bones to bones; withstanding great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction?

Dense regular connective tissue

135

What is able to withstand tension exerted in many directions; provides structural strength?

Dense irregular connective tissue

136

Where is Dense irregular connective tissue located?

Fibrous capsules of organs and joints; dermis of skin; submucosa of digestive tract

137

Inflammation sets the stage.
Organization restores the blood supply.
Regeneration and fibrosis effect permanent repair.
Theses are all steps to what?

Tissue repair

138

A delicate pink tissue composed of several elements which contain capillaries that grow in from nearby areas and lay down a new capillary bed is called what?

Granulation tissue

139

Tissue trauma causes injured tissue cells, macrophages, mast cells and others to release inflammatory chemicals, which cause the capillaries to dilate and become very permeable.
Leaked clotting proteins construct a clot, which stops the loss of blood, holds the edges of the wound together, and effectively walls in, or isolates, the injured area. What is this stage?

Inflammation

140

The clot is replaced by granulation tissue, which restores the vascular supply.
Fibroblasts produce collagen fibers that bridge the gap.
Macrophages phagocytize cell debris.
Surface epithelial cells multiply and migrate over the granulation tissue. What is this phase called?

Organization

141

The fibrosed area matures and contracts; the epithelium thickens.
A full regenerate epithelium with an underlying are of scar tissue results. what is this phase called?

Regeneration

142

What kind of cell is shaped like a spiky heimsphere and functions as a sensory receptor for touch?

Tactile(merkel) cells

143

What kind of cell is star shaped arise from bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. It functions to ingest foreign substances and are key activators of our immune sytstem.

Langerhan's cells

144

Eccrine and Apocrine glands are what kinds of glands?

Sweat(sudoriferous) glands

145

What kinds of glands occur all over the body surface except the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet?

Sebaceous(oil) glands

146

What is an avascular, keratinized sheet of stratified squamous epithelium?

Epidermis

147

What is composed mainly of dense, irregular connective tissue, is well supplied with blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves?

Dermis

148

The external ear and the epiglottis is made up of what?

Elastic cartilage

149

The pubic symphysis and the meniscus cartilage is made up of what?

Fibrocartilage

150

A hematoma forms.
Fibrocartilaginous callus forms.
Bony callus forms.
Bone remodeling occurs.
These are stages of what?

Bone repair