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muscles of the upper body
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1

What muscle is the main extensor of the fingers?

  1. Extensor Digitorum Communis
2
  1. What are the Extensor Pollicis Longus actions?

Extends all joints of the thumb: carpometacarpal, metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal.

3

What muscle has a larger muscle belly than the Extensor Pollicis Brevis? Its tendon travels medially to the dorsal tubercle at the wrist,

. Extensor Pollicis Longus

4

What muscle can be found medially and deep to the abductor pollicis longus? In the hand, its tendon contributes to the lateral border of the anatomical snuffbox.

Extensor Pollicis Brevis

5

What muscle Originates from the interosseous membrane and the adjacent posterior surfaces of the radius and ulna. It attaches to the lateral side of the base of metacarpal

Abductor Pollicis Longus

6

The muscle has two heads of origin. One originates from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, the other from the posterior surface of the ulna. They insert together into the posterior surface of the radius?

The supinator

7

What nerve travels medially through the cubital fossa, exiting by passing between the two heads of the pronator teres?

median nerve

8

What muscle originates from the posterior surface of the ulna and interosseous membrane, distal to the extensor pollicis longus. And Attaches to the extensor hood of the index finger?

Extensor Indicis Proprius

9

What nerve travels along the lateral border of the cubital fossa and divides into superficial and deep branches

Radial nerve

10

What does bifurcate mean? Divide into branches of forks

Divide into branches of forks

11

What muscles are situated on the lateral aspect of the posterior forearm. they are able to produce abduction as well as extension at the wrist?

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus and Brevis

12

What muscle is thought to originate from the extensor digitorum muscle? In some people, these two muscles are fused together

Extensor Digiti Minimi

13

What muscle is situated medially and superiorly in the extensor compartment of the forearm. It blends with the fibers of the triceps brachii, and the two muscles can be indistinguishable?

Anconeus

14

What is the square shaped muscle found deep to the tendons of the Flexor Digitorum profundus and Flexor pollicis longus

Pronator Quadratus

15

What is the Actions of the Flexor Pollicis Longus?

Flexes the interphalangeal joint and metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb

16

What Originates from the medial epicondyle, attaches to the base of metacarpals II and III?

Flexor Carpi Radialis

17

What muscle has two origins, one from the medial epicondyle, and the other from the coronoid process of the ulna and attaches laterally to the mid-shaft of the radius?

Pronator Teres

18

What is the Action Flexor Carpi Radialis?

Flexion and abduction at the wrist.

19

What muscle Originates from the anterior surface of the ulna and attaches to the anterior surface of the radius?

Pronator Quadratus

20

What are the six muscles in this scapulohumeral group?

supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis and teres minor

21

What muscles produce Upward rotation in the scapulae?

  1. trapezius and serratus anterior muscles.
22
  1. What muscles produce Downward rotation in the scapula?

the latissimus dorsi, levator scapulae, rhomboids, and the pectoralis major and minor muscles.

23
  1. A winged scapula condition can occur if what muscle is weak or dysfunctional?

serratus anterior

24

What muscle allows the index finger to be independent of the other fingers during extension?

Extensor Indicis Proprius

25
  1. Where is the referred nerve pain for C4?

Upper back and neck

26
  1. Where is the referred nerve pain for C5? Middle of neck and upper arms

Middle of neck and upper arms

27

If the tendon of a muscle attaches towards the thumb, it will have ______ in the name and will at least ________ the wrist

  1. radialis; abduct
28

If the tendon of a muscle attaches toward the __________, it will have ulnaris in the name and will at least _______ the wrist

pinky; adduct

29

If the tendon of a muscle attaches to the thumb, it will have _______ in its name

  1. pollicis
30

If the tendons of a muscle attach to digits 2-5, the muscle will have _____ in its name

digitorum

31
  1. How are the muscles of the arm organized?

There is an anterior and posterior compartment. Each compartment has superficial and deep groups of muscles

32

Which is the deepest muscle of the superficial forearm muscles

  1. flexor digitorum superficialis
33

What muscle lies in the floor of the cubital fossa. It has two heads, which the deep branch of the radial nerve passes between

supinator

34

what are the main functions of the posterior forearm muscles?

  1. supinate the forearm and extend the wrist and digits
35

What is the action of the extensor carpi ulnaris?

Extension and adduction of wrist.

36

What muscle Originates from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, and attaches to the base of metacarpal V?

extensor carpi ulnaris.

37

What is the action of the extensor carpi ulnaris?

Extension and adduction of wrist.

38

Anatomically, what muscle lies medially to the extensor digitorum?

extensor Digiti Minimi

39

What muscle originates from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. It attaches, with the extensor digitorum tendon, into the extensor hood of the little finger?

extensor Digiti Minimi

40

In the distal forearm, what are sandwiched between the brachioradialis and the deep flexor muscles?

the radial artery and nerve

41

What muscle originates from the proximal aspect of the lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus, and attaches to the distal end of the radius, just before the radial styloid process?

Brachioradialis

42

What is the action of the Brachioradialis?

Flexes at the elbow.

43

What is the square shaped muscle found deep to the tendons of the Flexor Digitorum profundus and Flexor pollicis longus?

Pronator Quadratus

44

What are all muscles in the posterior compartment of the forearm innervated by?

radial nerve

45

What muscle Originates from the anterior surface of the ulna and attaches to the anterior surface of the radius?

  1. Pronator Quadratus
46

What muscle Originates from the anterior surface of the radius and surrounding interosseous membrane. Attaches to the base of the distal phalanx of the thumb?

Flexor Pollicis Longus

47

What muscles attach to the anterior humerus shaft?

Coracobrachialis, Deltoid, brachialis, brachioradialis

48

What muscle inserts on the lips (sulus) of the intertubercular?

Pectoralis major, teres major, latissimus dorsi

49

What nerve when damaged results in the paralysis to the deltoid and teres minor muscles?

Axillary nerve

50

What is the attachment site for the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor?

Greater tuberosity

51

What muscle Originates from the anterior surface of the ulna and attaches to the anterior surface of the radius?

Pronator Quadratus

52

What are the intrinsic muscles of the shoulder known as?

The scapulohumeral group)

53

Subscapularis can harbor up to three trigger points, where do the two most common occur?

  1. near the outside edge of the muscle, and the inside edge of the muscle
54

What are the six muscles in this scapulohumeral group?

  1. the deltoid, teres major, and the four rotator cuff muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis and teres minor).
55

Protraction of the scapula is sometimes called what?

  1. abduction of the scapula, which makes the scapula’s further apart
56

What muscles are two diamond-shaped muscles that extend from the vertebral column to the medial border of the scapula?

Rhomboids major and minor

57

What are examples of actions in the frontal or concord plane?

  1. Abduction, adduction, jumping jacks, cartwheels raising and lowering limbs laterally
58

What is the articular disc

  1. is a thin, oval plate of fibrocartilage present in several joints which separates synovial cavities.
59

What type of joint is acromioclavicular joint?

  1. is a plane type synovial joint.
60

When do active people need Subscapularis strength?

To throw and use overhead movements

61

How does the Conoid ligament run?

  1. vertically from the coracoid process of the scapula to the conoid tubercle of the clavicle.
62

Where does the long head of biceps originate?

from the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula

63

What repetitive actions have the ability to produce subscapularis dysfunction?

  1. activities that involve a reaching action behind the back, common in swimming and racket sports
64

what is a freely mobile joint called?

diarthrosis

65

What type of ligament is the Trapezoid ligament?

Extrinsic

66

What compliments the rhomboids in their action of rotating the shoulder blade when lowering the arm from an elevated position?

The levator scapulae

67

Where is the acromioclavicular joint located?

  1. where the lateral end of the claviclearticulates with the acromion of the scapula.
68

What muscles perform shoulder flexion

  1. pectoralis major, anterior deltoid and coracobrachialis. Biceps brachii weakly assists in forward flexion.
69

what muscle can be subdivided into its clavicular head and its sternocostal head?

Pectoralis major

70

Terminal branch innervates what nerves

  1. upper and lower subscapular nerve of the subscapular muscle
71

What muscles originate from the scapula?

  1. Deltoid, infraspinatus, long head of the triceps, teres minor, teres major, latissimus dorsi, coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, subscapularis, omohyoid muscles
72

What muscles Retract of the scapula?

  1. rhomboideus major, minor, and trapezius are the prime movers.
73

What is the Scalenes function?

  1. flex the neck to either side and raise ribcage during inhalation
74

What muscle’s clavicular portion flexes the humerus?

pectoralis major

75

What types of movements accrue in the sagittal plane?

  1. Flexion and extension types of movement, and frontward and backward motions
76

The scapula provides attachment sites for what muscles?

  1. pectoralis minor, coracobrachialis, serratus anterior, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, and the subscapularis
77

When muscles when severely inflamed from wear and tear, you can even experience a “catching” of your shoulder joint when you rotate your arms around?

  1. Most likely the supraspinatus and other rotator cuff muscles
78

what muscles insert at the intertubercular groove of the humerus?

  1. The pectoralis major, teres major, and latissimus dorsi
79

Collectively, what is the conoid and trapezoid ligaments known as?

coracoclavicular ligament

80

People with severe supraspinatus tightness, inflammation and pain will have difficulty doing what?

lifting their arms overhead anywhere above shoulder level.

81

what muscles work to adduct and medially, or internally, rotate the humerus?

  1. pectoralis major, teres major, and latissimus dorsi
82

What muscles insert on the greater tubercle of the humerus?

The infraspinatus and teres minor

83

What muscle perform shoulder internal rotation?

  1. subscapularis, pectoralis major latissimus dorsi, teres major and anterior deltoid.
84

From its origin how does the subclavian artery travel?

  1. laterally, passing between anterior and middle scalene muscles, with the anterior scalene (scalenus anterior) on its anterior side and the middle scalene (scalenus medius) on its posterior.
85

Where is the iliac tubercle?

on the widest point of the iliac crest.

86

Axillary nerve innervates what?

  1. deltoid and teres minor and lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm (which is the lateral part of the shoulder)
87

Where is does the glenohumeral joint?

  1. is a ball and socket articulation between the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula
88

What happens when a swollen supraspinatus muscle pushes against and the synovial tissues?

  1. a painful “catch” each time you raise your arm
89

What is the action of myotome of C5?

elbow flexion

90

What is the myotome of C6

Wrist extension

91

What is C7’s myotome?

Elbow extension

92

What is C8’s myotome?

Finger flexion

93

What is the T1 myotome?

Finger abduction

94

Pain on the radial side of forearm, hand and thumb (skipping elbow) is a sign of what muscles disfunction?

Scalenes

95

What nerve innervates the intrinsic hand muscles and superficial cutaneous muscles and the flexor carpi ulnaris, and the ulnar half of the digitorum profundus, the hypothenar muscles which go to the pinky and third finger, and the palmar interosseous muscles?

Ulnar nerve

96

Edema or puffiness of the hand, especially in the morning could be a symptoms of what muscles defunction?

scalenes

97

What is the coracoid process (from Greek κόραξ, raven[1])?

  1. is a small hook-like structure on the lateral edge of the superior anterior portion of the scapula(hence: coracoid, or "like a raven's beak"). Pointing laterally forward, it, together with the acromion, serves to stabilize the shoulder joint.
98

Where is the coracoid palpable?

  1. in the deltopectoral groove between the deltoid and pectoralis major muscles. below the lateral end of the clavicle (collar bone)
99

What are the Synergistic muscles of the scalene muscle for lateral flexion?

Ipsilateral upper trapezius

100

What muscle’s sternocostal head adducts and medially rotates the humerus?

The pectorals major

101

what is the Apex:

  1. Formed by the cervicoaxillary canal; bounded by the clavicle, the 1st rib, and the top of the scapula
102

The Base of axilla is formed by what?

the skin that stretches from the arm to the thoracic cage; forms the indentation known as the axillary fossa

103

What muscle can flex and medially rotate the arm when its anterior portion is activated, its lateral portion abducts the arm, and its posterior portion can extend and laterally rotate the arm?

Latissimus dorsi

104

is the Anterior wall of the axilla Made up of?

  1. the pectoralis major and minor, forming the anterior axillary fold
105

What is the Medial wall of the axilla Formed by?

the thoracic cage and the serratus anterior

106

deltoid and teres minor and lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm are innervated by what?

  1. Axillary nerve
107

What is the Lateral wall of the axilla formed by?

  1. intertubercular sulcus (bicipital groove) of the humerus
108

What muscles forms the axilla or the armpit?

  1. pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, subclavius, teres major and the latissimus dorsi
109

What activities occur in the sagittal plane?

  1. kicking a football, chest pass in netball, walking, jumping, squatting, biceps curls, sit ups.
110

Teres major has a synergistic action with what muscle?

  1. the latissimus dorsi muscle
111

What does the subclavian artery become when it crosses the lateral border of the first rib?

axillary artery

112

What muscle is prone to tightness whenever you carry heavy loads in your arms or hold your arms out in front of you for long periods; For example, if you use a computer keyboard for a long time, especially without elbow support?

supraspinatus

113

Where do the subclavian arteries receive blood from?

The Aortic arch.

114

What are the actions of nerves C5 and C6?

Move shoulder, raise arm (deltoid); flex elbow (biceps

115

What does anterolaterally mean?

situated or occurring in front and to the side

116

What muscles disfunction Typically, has no restriction in neck movement?

scalenes

117

The coracoid process serves as the attachment site for what muscles?

  1. The pectoralis minor is attached to the medial aspect of the coracoid. The coracobrachialis is attached to the tip of the process on the medial side, and the short head of the biceps is attached to the tip of the process on the lateral side.
118

Staying in a posture with our arms internally rotated for too long will cause this muscles to shorten and ultimately adapt to this new position?

subscapularis

119

What is the C2 vertebra also called

The axis

120

what are the Common misdiagnosis of scalene disfunction?

  1. Carpal tunnel syndrome, C-5-C6 radiculopathy (pinched nerve)
121

Where does the short head of the biceps originate?

the coracoid process of the scapula.

122

what are the Symptoms of pectoralis major disfunction?

  1. Chest pain, Anterior shoulder pain, Pain down the ulnar aspect of the forearm and into the fourth and fifth fingers, Breast tenderness or nipple hypersensitivity, Concurrent pain between shoulder blades
123

what is the action of the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major muscle?

  1. Shoulder depression (pulls the humerus down)
124

What connects to the coracoid process?

  1. Conoid ligament, trapezoid ligament, coracoacromial ligament, coracohumeral ligament, and the conjoined tendon of the coracobrachialis, the shorthead of the biceps, and the pectoralis minor muscles
125

What muscle inserts on the lateral lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus?

  1. Pectoralis major
126

What muscles perform shoulder extension?

posterior deltoid, latissimus dorsi and teres major

127

What action does the Subscapularis perform when the arm is not raised?

Medially rotates (internal rotation) arm and adducts it; helps to hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula

128

what does amphiarthrosis mean?

slightly mobile joint

129

what is the annular ligament?

intrinsic ligament of the elbow articular capsule that surrounds and supports the head of the radius at the proximal radioulnar joint

130

Where is the Acromioclavicular joint (AC joint)?

The acromioclavicular joint is located where the clavicle (collarbone) glides along the acromion, located at the top of the shoulder blade

131

What muscle Originates from the coracoid process of the scapula and passes through the axilla, and attaches the medial side of the humeral shaft, at the level of the deltoid tubercle?

Coracobrachialis

132

What does the Thoracodorsal nerve innervate

  1. the latissimus dorsi
133

Where do the suprascapular and lateral pectoral nerves arise

directly from the brachial plexus.

134

What are the elbow muscles?

  1. the triceps brachii, brachioradialis, brachialis, biceps brachii, pronator teres, pronator quadratus and the anconeus.
135

biceps, coracobrachialis and brachialis muscles are innervated by what nerve?

Musculocutaneous

136

What innervates the levator scapula, rhomboid major and rhomboid minims?

Dorsal scapular nerve

137

Pain between the shoulder blades, concentrating in the area just medial to superior angle of the scapula may be sign of what muscles disfunction?

scalenes

138

Which type of ligament that is fused to or incorporated into the wall of the articular capsule of a synovial joint?

intrinsic ligament

139

Arterial supply to the anterior compartment of the upper arm is via muscular branches of the which artery?

brachial artery.

140

It is a passageway by which neurovascular and muscular structures can enter and leave the upper limb?

axilla

141

What muscle can be shortened at the desk with use of a mouse, especially with the arm held away from the body the arms tend to internally rotate when we are seated with our shoulders hunched over in front of a computer?

Subscapularis

142

What muscle’s superior aspect is covered by sternocleidomastoid?

the levator scapulae

143

What muscle’s inferior part by covered by the trapezius?

Levator scapulae

144

What muscles insert on the scapula?

  1. Trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, serratus anterior, pectoralis minor muscles
145

What muscles insert on the clavicle?

Sternocleidomastoid, Subclavius, Trapezius

146

What are the three elbow flexors?

brachialis, biceps, and brachioradialis.

147

What acts as Extensors of the glenohumeral (GH)joint?

  1. Triceps Brachii, Teres Major, Deltoid(Posterior Portion), Latissimus Dorsi, Rotator Cuff, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, Subscapularis
148

What acts as Internal Rotators of the glenohumeral (GH)joint?

Subscapularis, Teres Major, Latissimus Dorsi, Pectoralis Major

149

What acts as external Rotators of the glenohumeral (GH)joint?

  1. Teres Minor, Infraspinatus
150

What is the action of brachialis?

  1. Flexes the elbow, which it does equally well whether the forearm is pronated or supinated.