Autotransfusion

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1

The 3 cellular components of blood are?

1. RBC's

2. WBC's

3. Platelets

2

True or False?

Plasma normally constitutes between 50% and 60% of the blood volume

True

3

____________is the predominant protein in plasma

albumin

4

_____________ plays a critical role in the blood coagulation and buffering processes.

a. Plasma proteins

b. Electrolytes

c. Red Blood cells

d. Hemoglobin

a. Plasma proteins

5

_________ are/is essential for nerve and muscle contractions.

a. Plasma proteins

b. Electrolytes

c. Red blood cells

d. Hemoglobin

b. Electrolytes

6

There are between _________red blood cells per microliter of whole blood.

a. 1 million to 2 million

b. 2 million to 4 million

c. 4 million to 6 million

d. 6 million to 8 million

d. 6 million to 8 million

7

What is the life span of a red blood cell?

a. 14 days

b. 60 days

c. 90 days

d. 120 days

d. 120 days

8

True or False

Your patient has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. You should expect her oxygen transport system to be compromised

True

9

Hemoglobin is made up of __________subunits of identical alpha-globin and beta-globin chains

a. 2

b. 4

c. 6

d. 8

a. 2

10

The average degree of saturation of hemoglobin by oxygen in a sample of blood is defined as __________

oxygen saturation

11

The amount of oxygen that can be carried when the hemoglobin is fully saturated is:

a. 0.75 mL O2/gm hemoglobin

b. 0.98 mL O2/gm hemoglobin

c. 1.34 mL O2/gm hemoglobin

d. 1.78 mL O2/gm hemoglobin

c. 1.34 mL O2/gm hemoglobin

12

Carboxyhemoglobin can be elevated due to: (circle all that apply)

a. smog

b. smoking

c. high-fat diet

d. none of the above

a. smog

b. smoking

13

True or False

A large change in pO2 produces a large change in the degree of oxyhemoglobin saturation.

False

14

True or False

The decrease of pH and an increase in pCO2 causes an increase in p50

False.

A decrease in pH and increase in CO2 is known as the Bohr effect and results in a decrease of affinity for oxygen in tissues therefore it will cause a right shift in the oxygenation curve implying a decrease in p50

15

2,3 DPG is a byproduct of _____metabolism within the RBC

a. sugar

b. fat

c. protein

a. sugar

2,3DPG stands for 2,3-diphosphoglycerate is a FACTOR which interposes itself in Beta-globin chains keeping them from close proximity. The result is a release of oxygen.

***stored donor blood decreases over in 2,3 -DPG over time which means that red blood also decrease in their oxygen affinity.

16

The 2, 3 - DPG concentration in CPDA-1 blood that is regrigerated for 10 to 12 days will decrease by _____.

a. 25%

b. 50%

c. 75%

d. 100%

b. 50%

**Therefore autotransfusion is of greater benefit than allogeneic blood

17

True or False

Patients having a significant portion of their blood replaced via transfusion may be "functionally anemic" due to low levels of 2, 3 -DPG in stored, banked blood.

True

18

True or False

Salvaged autologous blood possesses normal levels of 2,3-DPG levels

True

19

What is the purpose of white blood cells?

Help fight infection and assist in immune response

20

Your patient weighs 100kg. What is his or her estimated blood volume?

a. 5000 cc

b. 5500 cc

c. 7000 cc

d. 8250 cc

c. 7000 cc

Calculation:

step 1: (1000 kg)(70 cc/kg) = 7000 cc

21

Using the same patient example (question 8), calculate the patient's plasma volume. Your patient's HCT is 43.5%. Your patient's plasma volume is:

a. 2835 cc

b. 3955 cc

c. 4545 cc

d. 4875 cc

b. 3955 cc

Calculation:

step 1: 1- 0.435 = 0.565

step 2: (7000)(0.565) = 3955 cc

22

Hemostasis is a complex set of interactions involving the:

a. blood vessels

b. platelets

c. plasma coagulation, proteins, and inhibitors

d. all of the above

d. all of the above

23

The normal platelet count is:

a. 100,000 to 300,000 uL

b. 150,000 to 400,000 uL

c. 300,000 to 600,000 uL

d. 400,000 to 800,000 uL

b. 150,000 to 400,000 uL

24

What happens to the platelet when it is activated?

1. It adheres to the damaged vessel

2. It changes shape

3. It then extends pseudopods

25

Place the following steps in the correct order of occurrence during the formation of a platelet plug:

__Platelets release ADP

_Platelets undergo shape change

_Plasma coagulation proteins lead to a fibrin clot

_Circulating platelets come in contact with the exposed molecules of the damaged endothelium

_Circulating platelets come in contact with the exposed molecules of the damaged endothelium

_Platelets undergo shape change

__Platelets release ADP

_Plasma coagulation proteins lead to a fibrin clot

26

T/F

Intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in plasma coagulation are independent of each other and have no feedback mechanisms.

False

27

Negatively and charged surfaces that can activate the intrinsic pathway include:

a. catheters

b. tubing used in blood coagulation and processing

c. components of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit

d. all of the above

d. all of the above

28

Activation of the extrinsic pathway occurs when the blood vessels and surrounding tissues are _________.

damaged

29

Fibrinogen is known as.

a. Factor I

b. Factor II

c. Factor IX

d. Factor XI

d. Factor I

30

T/F

Fibrinolysis is a secondary response to activation of plasma coagulation and is the process of fibrin clot dissolution.

True

31

_____regulate the hemostatic process and are required to maintain a balance between bleeding and clot formation.

Inhibitors

32

T/F

Administration of citrate as an anticoagulant in blood products does not prolong anticoagulation in the patient.

True

33

Which 2 of the following agents are useful in systemic anticoagulation?

a. Coumadin

b. CPD

c. ACD-A

d. Heparin

a. Coumadin

d. Heparin

34

Protamine sulfate must be used with caution for the following reasons (select all that apply):

a. It does not have an antidote

b. It can cause anaphylactic reactions

c. If the patient is given too much, it can lose its effect

d. None of the above

a. It does not have an antidote

b. It can cause anaphylactic reactions

35

Complement activation can occur in the following conditions (select all that apply):

a. Trauma

b. Contact with components of the cardiopulmonary bypass system

c. Contact with bacteria and viruses

d. All of the above

d. All of the above