Breast Imaging—Adjunctive Modalities

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1

What is the technique whereby 11 to 15 low-dose tomography images are taken using one or two compressions of the breast?

Digital tomosynthesis

2

What ultrasound technology identifies cancer by the relative hard properties of cancerous tissue?

Elastography

3

What technology identifies the chemical choline, present in cancerous lesions?

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

4

Name three different nuclear imaging technologies.

Nuclear imaging or molecular imaging can include positron emission tomography/mammography, breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI), scintigraphy or scintimammography, lymphoscintigraphy, or sentinel node mapping.

5

Give three general terms used to describe the radioactive substance used in nuclear medicine studies.

Radiopharmaceutical, radioactive tracers, radionuclide, radioisotopes

6

What technology is based on the principle that most cancerous tissue uses a vast amount of glucose?

Positron emission tomography or positron emission mammography

7

What nuclear imaging modality sees exercise as a contraindication?

Positron emission tomography or positron emission mammography

8

Name the radioactive substance used during a scintimammography scan.

99mTc-sestamibi

9

What major factor differentiates the scintimammography scan from the BSGI?

The size of the gamma camera used and the position of the patient during the study. BSGI uses a small breast gamma camera and has the patient seated versus lying during the study.

10

What syndrome is related to the repeated scanning motion used by ultrasound technologists?

Carpal tunnel syndrome

11

In addition to the radiopharmaceutical, what other substance is often injected when trying to determine whether a cancer has left the breast?

A blue dye—isosulfan blue vital dye

12

What term is used to describe the process of forming new blood vessels?

Angiogenesis

13

Which technique uses infrared light to penetrate breast tissue?

Optical imaging

14

What modality uses x-rays to image the breast without compression, giving an average dose of 9.9 mGy?

Cone-beam CT imaging

15

Give three limitations of CTLM.

Cannot detect microcalcification; reports a high false-positive rate; is difficult to image small breasts

16

What technique employs a low-level electric current to map the breast?

Electrical impedance spectroscopy, transscan, or T scan

17

Scanning the breast to locate a cancer based on the vast amount of glucose/sugar used by cancer cell is called:

(A) Scintigraphy

(B) PEM imaging

(C) MRI

(D) Lymphoscintigraphy

(B) PEM imaging

18

Which of the following technologies is based on the principle of angiogenesis?

(A) Scintigraphy

(B) PEM imaging

(C) MRI

(D) CTLM

(D) CTLM

19

Which of the following types of breast imaging method will fall under the category of nuclear imaging?

(1) PEM

(2) MRI

(3) Scintimammography

(A) 1 and 2 only

(B) 2 and 3 only

(C) 1 and 3 only

(D) 1, 2, and 3 only.

(C) 1 and 3 only

20

A technique of injecting a radioisotope directly into the tumor bed to tract the extent or spread of a cancer, describes:

(A) Scintigraphy

(B) Scintimammography

(C) Lymphoscintigraphy

(D) Positron emission

(C) Lymphoscintigraphy

21

A digital method of scanning the breast to create three-dimensional reconstruction of tomography planes of the breast is:

(A) Lymphoscintigraphy

(B) BSGI

(C) Digital breast tomosynthesis

(D) Optical imaging

(C) Digital breast tomosynthesis

22

The principle of elastography is that:

(A) Cancers are relatively hard compared with surrounding breast tissue

(B) Electric current can travel easily thought the breast tissue

(C) Malignant tumors develop numerous new blood vessels

(D) Radioactive substances have an affinity to malignant cells

(A) Cancers are relatively hard compared with surrounding breast tissue

23

The radioactive compound used in BSGI is:

(A) Fluorodeoxyglucose

(B) Gadolinium

(C) 99mTc-sestamibi

(D) Radiation

(C) 99mTc-sestamibi

24

An imaging technology that measures choline, the functional breast cancer byproduct, is:

(A) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)

(B) Lymphoscintigraphy

(C) Elastography

(D) BSGI

(A) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)

25

A technology that uses low-level electric currents to “map” the breast is:

(A) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

(B) Digital breast tomosynthesis

(C) Bioelectric imaging or electrical impedance scanning (EIS)

(D) Positron emission mammography

(C) Bioelectric imaging or electrical impedance scanning (EIS)

26

Which of the following procedures requires the patient to lie still for 60 to 90 minutes after an injection and before the actual procedure?

(A) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)

(B) PEM

(C) Elastography

(D) BSGI

(B) PEM