pharmacology 2

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1

Adenohypophysis is associated with which one of the following glands?

Pituitary

Pituitary

2

An adult patient who complains of being sleepy and less alert and having slow heart rate and reduced endurance may be suffering from which one of the following conditions?

Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism

3

Diuretics cause the elimination of excess fluid by preventing the reabsorption of which one of the following elements?

Sodium

4

Drugs that relieve symptoms of a condition but do not cure it are:

Palliative

5

Epinephrine is combined with local anesthetics to:

Prolong the effects of local anesthesia.

6

Hormones made of short chains of amino acids are called __________ hormones.

Peptide

7

Hormones produced by the cortex of adrenal glands are collectively called:

Steroids

8

Hormones produced by the medulla of the adrenal glands are collectively called:

Catecholamines

9

Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL) is which type of diuretic medication?

Thiazide

10

Nonsteroidal hormones are synthesized from:

Amino acids

11

Oxytocin is available under which trade name?

Pitocin

12

Potassium-sparing diuretics are commonly used to treat which one of the following conditions?

Edema

13

Steroidal hormones are derived from:

Cholesterol

14

Steroidal hormones that promote male characteristics are:

Androgens

15

The body's failure to respond to the action of insulin on target cells ...

Type II diabetes

16

The definition of a diuretic medication is an agent that prevents the reabsorption of sodium and water by which one of the following organs?

Kidneys

17

The diuretic medication that draws fluid out of tissues and into the circulatory system is called:

Osmotic

18

The exocrine pancreas is the primary source for all of the following digestive enzymes except:

Glucagon

19

The fight-or-flight response to stress is initiated by:

Catecholamines

20

The pituitary gland has a role in all of the following body functions except:

Production of insulin

21

The trade or brand name for furosemide is:

Lasix

22

The trade or brand name for mannitol is:

Osmitrol

23

What cardiac condition requires treatment with diuretics?

Congestive heart failure

24

What is the generic name for Pitressin?

Vasopressin

25

Which concentration of epinephrine is for topical use only?

1:1000

26

Which diuretic is contraindicated in patients with hypertension?

Osmotic

27

Which electrolyte may be seriously depleted in patients taking certain diuretics?

Potassium

28

Which group of hormones is used to reduce the postoperative inflammatory response?

Glucocorticoids

29

Which mineralocorticoid maintains hemostatic levels of sodium in the blood?

Aldosterone

30

Which one of the following endocrine disorders may be treated surgically?

Hypersecretion

31

Which one of the following glands has both endocrine and exocrine functions?

Pancreas

32

Which one of the following glands is called the master gland?

Pituitary

33

Which one of the following glands secretes oxytocin?

Neurohypophysis

34

Which one of the following hormones helps control calcium and phosphate levels in the blood?

Calcitonin

35

Which one of the following hormones is given for palliative treatment of metastatic breast cancer?

Estrogen

36

Which one of the following hormones is given for palliative treatment of androgen-dependent prostate cancer?

Estrogen

37

Which one of the following hormones is necessary for the stimulation of uterine contractions during labor and delivery?

Oxytocin

38

Which one of the following hormones is not a catecholamine?

Glucocorticoids

39

Which one of the following hormones is used with local anesthetic medications?

Epinephrine

40

Which one of the following is an ovarian hormone?

Estrogen

41

Which one of the following is classified as a high-ceiling diuretic medication and is used to decrease intracranial pressure?

Lasix

42

Which one of the following is considered the simplest form of hormones?

Amines

43

Which one of the following is not a function of hormones?

Production of histamine (H2) receptor antagonists to bind to target cells

44

Which one of the following is the generic name for Decadron?

Dexamethasone

45

Which one of the following is the generic name for Solu-Medrol?

Methylprednisolone

46

Which one of the following medications is a loop diuretic?

Lasix

47

Which one of the following medications is given to stabilize fluid balance in patients with diabetes insipidus?

Pitressin

48

Which one of the following medications may be injected directly into the uterine muscle after a cesarean section?

Pitocin

49

Which one of the following pancreatic hormones stimulates the liver to break down glycogen into glucose to increase the blood sugar level?

Glucagon

50

Which one of the following pancreatic hormones stimulates the liver to form glycogen from glucose to lower the blood sugar level?

Insulin

51

Which one of the following types of diuretic medications is prescribed in the treatment of glaucoma?

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

52

Ophthalmic lubricants are generally used to:

Prevent corneal abrasions while the patient is under general anesthesia

53

Anterior and posterior chambers are separated by the:

Iris

54

Steroid anti-inflammatory drugs are used in ophthalmology to:

Suppress inflammatory response to trauma

55

Microfibrillar collagen hemostat is derived from:

Bovine corium collagen

56

Anticoagulants are used for any of the following reasons except:

To dissolve blood clots causing a myocardial infarction

57

The dense, white, fibrous connective tissue that coats the entire globe of the eye is called the:a.Retina

Sclera

58

Which one of the following medications should be reconstituted immediately before use?

Miochol-E

59

Phenylephrine is the generic name for:

Neo-Synephrine

60

Why is topical application the most common method of administering anesthesia for eye surgery?

Eye procedures do not require systemic anesthesia.

61

Drugs that constrict the pupil by stimulating the iris muscle are called:

Miotics

62

Which solution may be used as an irrigation solution at the sterile field during an atrioventricular (AV) fistula insertion?

5000 units heparin in 1000 mL saline

63

Thick, gelatinous substances that are injected into the eye to keep the chamber expanded or to replace vitreous humor are:

Viscoelastic agents

64

The formation or presence of a blood clot within the vascular system is termed:

Thrombosis

65

Which one of the following is the nervous layer of the eye?

Retina

66

Hemostatic agents are effective against major arterial or venous bleeding.

False

67

Phacoemulsification and extracapsular cataract extraction techniques have made which one of the following drugs obsolete?

Alpha-chymotrypsin

68

The posterior cavity of the globe is filled with:

Vitreous humor

69

Which one of the following drugs is used to reverse the effect of heparin?

Protamine sulfate

70

Which one of the following is not a viscoelastic agent?

Miochol

71

Which group of ophthalmic drugs dilates the pupil?

Mydriatics

72

5% ophthalmic solution of tetracaine is known by which trade name?

Pontocaine

73

Which one of the following is a form of oxidized regenerated cellulose?

Avitene microfibrillar collagen hemostat (MCH)

74

What is the duration of heparin (in hours)?

2 to 4

75

Avitene must be applied with a __________ instrument.

Dry

76

What types of hemostatics are used on areas of capillary bleeding?

Topical

77

All of the following are topical hemostatics except:

Vitamin K

78

Which one of the following hemostatic agents should be used immediately after it is reconstituted?

Thrombostat

79

Which one of the following hemostatic agents promotes platelet aggregation leading to clot formation?

Avitene

80

Calcium and vitamin K play vital roles in the process of clot formation.

TRUE

81

What is the effect of cycloplegic drugs?

Mydriasis

82

Which one of the following agents dissolves blood clots?

Thrombolytics

83

Which one of the following procedures is performed to remove a blood clot?

Arterial embolectomy

84

Intravenous administration of _________ is associated with anaphylactic reactions and should not be attempted unless no other venue is available.

Vitamin K

85

Which one of the following focuses the image onto the retina?

Lens

86

Which one of the following is a microfibrillar collagen?

Avitene

87

Drugs that promote clot formation are termed:

Coagulants

88

Which of the following is not a form of absorbable gelatin?

Thrombogen

89

Agents that dissolve already formed clots are called:

Thrombolytics

90

Heparin is measured in:

Units

91

Which one of the following hemostatic agents creates a mechanical barrier to control bleeding?

Bone wax

92

Which one of the following causes a chemical burn to stop capillary bleeding?

Silver nitrate

93

Anterior and posterior cavities of the eye are separated by the:

Lens

94

Which group of drugs is given intravenously to dissolve existing blood clots?

Thrombolytics

95

BSS is an example of which ophthalmic drug category?

Irrigating solutions

96

Which one of the following is not a thrombolytic drug?

Warfarin

97

Bone wax is used primarily in which one of the following surgical specialties?

Neurosurgery

98

Which form of anticoagulant is used for long-term management of deep vein thrombosis (DVT)?

Oral

99

The vitreous humor of the eye does not:

Replenish itself

100

Which one of the following agents is a chemical hemostatic?

Silver nitrate

101

Which of the following is not a form of absorbable collagen sponge?

Avitene

102

Long-term treatment of glaucoma may include any one of the following groups of drugs except:

Osmotic diuretic medications

103

The mucous membrane layer that covers the inside of the eyelids, as well as the anterior surface of the globe of the eye, is known as the:

Conjunctiva

104

Aqueous humor is a fluid secreted by the:

Ciliary processes

105

Chronic open-angle glaucoma results from a blockage of the:

Trabecular meshwork

106

Proteins used in eye surgery that act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions are called:

Enzymes

107

What is the onset of Coumadin (in hours)?

12 to 72

108

Which one of the following hemostatic agents causes adhesion formation if it comes in contact with nonbleeding tissues?

Avitene

109

Which one of the following agents is a thrombolytic?

Streptokinase

110

Which one of the following is mixed with injectable local anesthetic agents to increase its rate of diffusion through tissues?

Vitrase

111

An ophthalmic ointment that is made of tobramycin and dexamethasone is marketed under what trade name?

TobraDex

112

Which one of the following is not an oral anticoagulant?

Streptokinase

113

The anterior chamber of the eye is filled with:

Aqueous humor

114

The antidote for heparin is which one of the following?

Protamine sulfate

115

Agents that inhibit the process of blood clot formation are called:

Anticoagulants

116

Which one of the following parenteral anticoagulants is used most often?

Heparin sodium

117

Which is not a topical hemostatic?

Calicum salts

118

Which one of the following hemostatic agents may be used dry or moist and is available in film, powder, and sponge forms?

Absorbable gelatin

119

5% ophthalmic solution of proparacaine is known by which trade name?

Alcaine

120

Ophthalmic dyes are used to accomplish each of the following except:

Observe flow of vitreous humor

121

The clear, nonvascular fibrous tissue that covers the front of the eye to allow light into the eye is known as the:

Cornea

122

What is the duration of Coumadin?

5 to 7 days

123

Which vitamin serves a vital role in coagulation?

K

124

Which group of drugs interferes with the transmission of pain impulses to the brain?

Anesthetic agents

125

Which one of the following is used to correct deficiencies in the natural clotting mechanism and may be administered preoperatively or intraoperatively?

Systemic coagulants

126

What is the generic name for Coumadin?

Warfarin sodium

127

What is the onset of heparin (in minutes)?

5

128

Increased intraocular pressure is a characteristic of which one of the following diseases?

Glaucoma

129

Which one of the following is a systemic anticoagulant?

Heparin

130

Which group of ophthalmic drugs is used in the short-term treatment of glaucoma?

Miotics

131

Neomycin combined with polymyxin and bacitracin is marketed as which one of the following?

Neosporin