pharmacology

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1

A _________________ is a paper strip or specially treated tape that changes color when exposed to a specific temperature.

a.wrapping paper

b.chemical indicator

c.paper monitor

d.litmus paper

c.paper monitor

2

Because paper products are difficult or impossible to decontaminate, patient’s charts, x-rays, and laboratory documentation should be ________.

a.left outside of the surgical suite

b.flash sterilized

c.immediately placed in plastic bags

d.kept free from contamination.

d.kept free from contamination.

3

Sterile instruments and supplies are loaded onto the ___________ before surgery and transported to the surgical suite.

a.conveyor

b.personnel

c.elevator

d.case cart

d.case cart

4

The important factor to remember about ___________ is that they do not indicate sterility, only that certain conditions for sterility have been met.

a.Bowie-Dick tests

b.indicators

c.case cart systems

d.detergents

b.indicators

5

The phrase flash sterilization has been replaced by _____________ sterilization, in which unwrapped surgical equipment is sterilized by a high-vacuum steam sterilization method just before use.

a.quick

b.right on time

c.immediate-use steam sterilization—IUSS

d.just-in-time

c.immediate-use steam sterilization—IUSS

6

The purpose of wrapping an item before sterilization is to protect it from _____________ after the sterilization process.

a.contamination

b.infection

c.light

d.damage

a.contamination

7

The recommended practice to damp dust the surgical lights, furniture, and fixed equipment in the operating suite is ___________.

a.at the end of the day

b.before the beginning of each shift

c.before each case of the day

d.before the first case of the day

d.before the first case of the day

8

The Spaulding classification of reprocessing instruments and patient materials assigns three risk levels based on the specific region of the body where the device will be used. These levels are critical, semi critical, and ________.

a.low-critical

b.noncritical

c.uncritical

d.ultra-critical

b.noncritical

9

The ultrasonic cleaner removes debris from instruments by a process called __________.

a.osculation

b.cavitation

c.both A and B

d.agitation

b.cavitation

10

The ______________ sterilizer operates on the principle that air is heavier than steam.

a.gravity displacement

b.dynamic

c.preconditioned

d.unconditioned

a.gravity displacement

11

The ______________sterilizer pulls air from the chamber with vacuum force and replaces it with steam. As air is pumped into the chamber, steam enters in pulsed phases. Air is completely removed with positive and negative pressure pulses. As the pressure increases, so does the temperature of the steam inside the sterilizer.

a.dynamic air-removal (prevacuum)

b.unconditioned

c.Preconditioned

d.gravity displacement

a.dynamic air-removal (prevacuum)

12

There are three distinct phases in all types of steam sterilizers. __________ is when air is removed from the chamber and replaced with steam.

a.Parameter

b.Indication

c.Exposure

d.Conditioning

d.Conditioning

13

Two types of steam sterilizers are used in the clinical setting: __________.

a.preconditioned and unconditioned

b.gravity displacement and Sterrad

c.gravity displacement and dynamic

d.dynamic and internal

c.gravity displacement and dynamic

14

___________ is a skilled, certified profession that requires expertise in the science and practice of materials management, decontamination, and sterilization.

a.Enzymatic cleaner

b.Certified Surgical Technologists

c.Sterile Processing Technicians

d.High vacuum sterilizer

c.Sterile Processing Technicians

15

______________ items must be sterile. These items enter sterile tissue or the vascular system.

a.Low critical

b.Noncritical

c.Semi critical

d.Critical

d.Critical

16

___________________ is used to sterilize objects that cannot tolerate the heat, moisture, and pressure of steam sterilization.

a.Glutaraldehyde solution

b.Ethylene oxide

c.Gas plasma

d.Peracetic acid

b.Ethylene oxide

17

Used for noncritical items

a.Decontamination

b.Disinfection

c.Sterilization

b.Disinfection

18

Monitored by chemical and biological methods to ensure patient safety

a.Decontamination

b.Disinfection

c.Sterilization

c.Sterilization

19

Process by which all microorganisms, including spores, are destroyed

a.Decontamination

b.Disinfection

c.Sterilization

c.Sterilization

20

Uses steam, ethylene oxide, peracetic acid, or cobalt-60

a.Decontamination

b.Disinfection

c.Sterilization

c.Sterilization

21

Used for surgical instruments, implants, and needles

a.Decontamination

b.Disinfection

c.Sterilization

c.Sterilization

22

Uses isopropyl alcohol 70% to 90%, glutaraldehyde, and iodophor solution

a.Decontamination

b.Disinfection

c.Sterilization

b.Disinfection

23

Used for anesthesia equipment, gastrointestinal endoscopes, bronchoscopes

a.Decontamination

b.Disinfection

c.Sterilization

b.Disinfection

24

Stethoscopes, blood pressure, and tourniquet cuffs

a.Critical items

b.Semi critical items

c.Noncritical items

c.Noncritical items

25

Can include bed linens, crutches, and tables

a.Critical items

b.Semi critical items

c.Noncritical items

c.Noncritical items

26

Laryngoscopes, bronchoscopes, and endotracheal tubes

a.Critical items

b.Semi critical items

c.Noncritical items

b.Semi critical items

27

Must be sterilized before use on a patient

a.Critical items

b.Semi critical items

c.Noncritical items

a.Critical items

28

Include vascular and urinary catheters

a.Critical items

b.Semi critical items

c.Noncritical items

a.Critical items

29

Not required to be sterile because they do not penetrate intact tissues

a.Critical items

b.Semi critical items

c.Noncritical items

c.Noncritical items

30

Exposed to the skin but not mucous membranes

a.Critical items

b.Semi critical items

c.Noncritical items

c.Noncritical items

31

Must be sterile

a.Critical items

b.Semi critical items

c.Noncritical items

a.Critical items

32

Come into contact with mucous membranes or non-intact skin

a.Critical items

b.Semi critical items

c.Noncritical items

b.Semi critical items

33

Objects that enter sterile tissue or the vascular system

a.Critical items

34

Which member of the surgical team must document the medications that are used in the surgical field?

a.Circulator

b.Surgeon

c.Surgical first assistant

d.Surgical technologist in the scrub role

a.Circulator

35

Before medications are delivered into the sterile field, they must be identified by:

a.Scrub person and circulator

b.Nurse anesthetist and circulator

c.Physician and circulator

dTwo scrub personnel

a.Scrub person and circulator

36

All of the following must be read aloud when identifying a drug except:

a.Manufacturer

b.Drug name

c.Strength

d.Expiration date

a.Manufacturer

37

The scrub person may receive medications into the sterile field in all of the following ways except:

a.All of the above are correct.

b.Circulator places the bottle on the corner of the back table.

c.Circulator pours the medication into a sterile container.

d.Scrub person draws up the medication from the bottle held by the circulator.

b.Circulator places the bottle on the corner of the back table.

38

The most common type of syringe used in surgery is the:

a.Luer-loc

b.Insulin

c.Tuberculin

d.Plain tip

a.Luer-loc

39

When recapping a needle you should:

a.Hand the uncapped needle to the circulator.

b.Use the one-handed method.

c.Use the two-handed method.

d.Throw the needle into the trash.

b.Use the one-handed method.

40

When changing shifts, the incoming surgical technologist notices one of the medications on the sterile field is not accurately labeled. What should she or he do?

a.Ask the surgeon what to do.

b.Ask the circulator to show him or her the empty vial and then label it properly.

c.Ask the scrub person to label the medication before leaving.

d.Discard the medication and ask the circulator for a new dose.

d.Discard the medication and ask the circulator for a new dose.

41

The five rights of medication administration include all of the following except:

a.Right time

b.Right patient

c.Right physician

d.Right dose

e.Right drug

c.Right physician

42

Which statement does not apply to the required steps for proper medication identification?

a.Read the label on the container.

b.Show the label to the surgeon.

c.Check the expiration date.

d.Check the integrity of the container.

b.Show the label to the surgeon.

43

Medication labels must contain all of the following information except:

a.Amount of medication

b.Generic and trade names

c.Contraindications

d.Strength of medications

c.Contraindications

44

When handling medications in the surgical department, which one of the following statements does not apply?

a.Both the scrub person and the circulator must follow aseptic technique.

b.Medications in a powder form must be reconstituted by the circulator before delivery to the sterile field.

c.Multidose vials may be recapped aseptically and dated to enable the remaining portions to be used at a later time.

d.When the circulator is delivering solutions to the sterile field, the scrub person should hold the receiving container away from the sterile table.

c.Multidose vials may be recapped aseptically and dated to enable the remaining portions to be used at a later time.

45

Improper or inadequate labeling of medications may be considered which one of the following?

a.Malpractice

b.Negligence

c.Tort

d.Materia medica

b.Negligence

46

Which of the following steps does not apply once a medication error has occurred?

a.Follow institutional policy.

b.Notify the surgeon immediately.

c.Notify the unit supervisor.

d.An incident report is not required.

d.An incident report is not required.

47

A 30-gauge hypodermic needle is larger in diameter than an 18-gauge needle.

a.True

b.False

b.False

48

Transmission of microorganisms to a sterile field or item

Contamination

49

Liquid such as saline or water used to reduce the concentration of an agent

Diluent

50

Glass tube containing a medication

Carpule

51

Without infection

Asepsis

52

Turning a solid medication into a liquid by adding water or saline

Reconstitute

53

A series of tests used to identify disease-causing microorganisms and to determine their susceptibility to various antibiotics is called:

a.Gram stain

b.Culture and sensitivity

c.Hemoglobin and hematocrit

d.Antibiotic resistance

b.Culture and sensitivity

54

Acetic acid is used to:

a.Reveal corneal abrasions

b.Identify cervical dysplasia

c.Remove small skin lesions

d.Enhance radiographic studies

b.Identify cervical dysplasia

55

All of the following are blue-colored dyes except:

a.Indigo carmine

b.Lugol’s solution

c.Indigo carmine

d.Methylene blue

e.Lymphazurin

b.Lugol’s solution

56

All of the following are true of contrast media except:

a.They are clear in color.

b.Most contain iodine.

c.They are sensitive to light.

d.Most are radiotransparent.

d.Most are radiotransparent.

57

All of the following are working theories for the development of resistant pathogens except:

a.Frequent exposure of normal host bacteria to antibiotics

b.Patient noncompliance with physician’s orders (e.g., dose, frequency)

c.Prescribing antibiotics for viral infection

d.Prescribing limited-spectrum antibiotics

d.Prescribing limited-spectrum antibiotics

58

Among the most common causative agents of SSI are bacteria known as:

a.Streptococcus pneumoniae

b.Staphylococcus aureus

c.Staphylococcus epidermidis

d.Bacillus subtilis

b.Staphylococcus aureus

59

An antimicrobial agent used to inhibit bacterial growth is called:

a.Bacteriophagic

b.Bacteriostatic

c.Bacteriogenic

d.Bactericidal

b.Bacteriostatic

60

Bacteria classified as eukaryotes can be defined as:

a.Not found in multicellular organisms

b.Having an early or pre nucleus

c.Being found in multicellular organisms

d.Having smaller ribosomes than prokaryotes

a.Not found in multicellular organisms

61

During an operative cholangiogram, saline is injected to:

a.Enhance the structures on x-ray film

b.Remove the contrast media after the x-ray study is complete

c.Verify catheter placement

d.Dilute the contrast media

c.Verify catheter placement

62

Dyes can be administered by all of the following methods except:

a.Injected into the bloodstream

b.Ingested into the digestive system

c.Instilled into cavities

d.Applied topically to tissue

b.Ingested into the digestive system

63

Endogenous infection occurs from:

a.The patient's own bacteria

b.Outside the patient's body

c.A tear in the surgeon's glove

d.Contaminated surgical supplies

a.The patient's own bacteria

64

Erythromycin belongs to which group of antibiotics?

a.Penicillins

b.Cephalosporins

c.Aminoglycosides

d.Macrolides

d.Macrolides

65

Pharmacologic agents used in diagnostic radiographic testing are considered which one of the following?

a.Contrast media

b.Dyes

c.Staining agents

d.Steroids

a.Contrast media

66

Preoperative and intraoperative antibiotics may be administered by any one of the following methods except:

a.Topically to the incision

b.Orally

c.Intravenously

d.In irrigation solutions

b.Orally

67

Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed to:

a.Prevent infections

b.Identify pathogens

c.Treat surgical site infections (SSIs)

d.Identify pathogens

a.Prevent infections

68

Staining agents are used surgically to:

a.Visualize stones or blockages in body structures

b.Mark normal tissue planes

c.Identify abnormal cells

d.Enhance visualization of body cavities

c.Identify abnormal cells

69

The pharmacologic agent used to delineate lymph nodes is which one of the following?

a.Lymphazurin

b.Lugol's solution

c.Omnipaque

d.Indigo carmine

a.Lymphazurin

70

When a microorganisms DNA sequence is altered to prevent destruction by an ...

a.Plasma membrane

b.Antibiotic resistance

c.Broad-spectrum coverage

d.Bacteriostatic effect

b.Antibiotic resistance

71

Which category of antibiotics is known to be ototoxic and nephrotoxic?a.Aminoglycosides

b.Cephalosporins

c.Penicillins

d.Macrolides

a.Aminoglycosides

72

Which one of the following combination agents contains an antibiotic, an anti-inflammatory, and must be shaken before using?

a.Cortisporin Suspension Otic

b.Neosporin GU Irrigant

c.Bacitracin with polymyxin B

d.Coly-mycin S Otic

a.Cortisporin Suspension Otic

73

Which one of the following major groups of antibiotics is classified into five generations on the basis of the spectrum of its activity?

a.Tetracyclines

b.Macrolides

c.Penicillins

d.Cephalosporins

d.Cephalosporins