Prematriculation Prep: Reproduction
sperm vs egg production frequency
males constantly, egg once/month
uterus: thin or thick?
labor is aka
two muscles that help w/ sperm temperature regulation
and where are the sperm stored for temp regulation?
in the scrotum
long tubes above testes
store sperm before they go... giving them more mitochondria and develop flagella
bring sperm upward behind the bladder and into the urethra
artery and vein that serves the testes
continuation of epididymus
in the spermatic cord; continuation of epididymis
3 accessory glands of male reproductive system
location and function
makes a fluid that is rich in fructose and alkaline
where does seminal fluid travelu
prosthetic fluid function
increases mobility of sperm once in vag
bulbourethral glands function
where are androgens made
what hormone regulates BP
aldosterone (fluid volume)
what prevents indefinate expansion of penis
what allows blood flow into the penis
cavernosal and dorsal arteries
what is compressed during erection
chemicals released from nervous system for:
NO (from PSNS) nitrIC oxide
norepinephrine (constricted arterioles
3 cylindrical compartments of penis that fill w/ blood
2 corpora cavernosa and one corpus spongiosum
how does blood get to penis during erection
what muscle sends sperm to penis for ejaculation
thru urethal meatus: via bulbosponglosum muscle
HR and BP after erection/ejaculation
how long is the ovarian cycle?
what is the earliest stage follicle? (day 0)
and what is it?
a primary oocyte surrounded by a layer of granulosa cells
what lowers the amount of FSH?
what is it produced by?
produced by granulosa cells
what prevents oocyte from leaving meosis I?
keeps oocyte from leaving meosis I
separates egg from granulosa cells, but egg still nourished thru gap junctions
what hormone triggers egg release
why does the zona pellucida keep it in meosis I?
prevent division and chromosome number reduction
what are the walls of the primary follicle called
has receptors for:
have receptors for LH
mound of granulosa cells that are dividing and expanding in the primary follicle... egg is floating in fluid, and this and mound separate from wall so that primary follicle is expanding in size... trying to form mature follicle
what causes the pelvic pain of menstrual cycle?
enzymes in follicle break down the wall of follicle as the largest secondary mature oocyte balloons out the side of the overy
corpus luteum if egg not fertilized?
reaches max size in 10 days ... then degenerates by apoptosis to finish on day 28
corpus luteum if fertilized?
travels thru the uterine tube, lives and releases hormones to promote implantation
when do twins happen?
accidental 2 mature follicles formed
fluid of secondary follicle released from granulocytes?
formed via LH + theca. converted to estrogen via granulosa cells
when is a female's egg supply made?
entire supply made when in womb
what are the germ cells of an egg called?
how do they reproduce?
how many germ cells are made for eggs and in how long?
2-4 million made in 7 months
after an egg germ cell, what is the next one called?
how does it reproduce?
meosis I (note: arrested here til menstruation)
Secondary oocyte chromosome copy number
cut in half... n
polar body formed from eggs (2 scenarios)
1. when secondary oocyte is formed during puberty, it is formed. excess cytoplasm
2. when sperm fertilizes the egg. after meosis II
when does meosis II happen for egg
only after sperm fertilizes it
when is a zygote formed
when sperm and egg nuclei fuse
what does the corpus luteum produce?
progesterone. this is when progesterone peaks during ovarian cycle
also makes some estrogen
what must the corpus luteum have to survive?
FSH and LH
when does inhibin peak during ovarian cycle?
when corpus luteum is at maximum size. then, decreases after this peak of inhibin
which hormone has a hhigher peak at day 14;
FSH or LH?
estrogen or progesterone?
typically, estrogen and FSH/LH relationship
typically, estrogen is high with less FSH and LH. but when super high, paradoxial and has high of both. this is the day 14 peak we see.
what prevents uterine contractions?
what causes a new endometrium at day 7-14?
estrogen (proliferation phase)
if implantation, what produces progesterone?
1st 3 months: corpus luteum
what is the third phase of the UTERINE cycle called?
day 14-21. coincides w luteal phase
if implanted, what hormone does the embryo produce?
what is the first thing implanted called?
arteries put in place by blastocyst
keeps corpus luteum allive, similar to LH, pregnancy test
primary maker of estrogen
what increases smooth muscle in the uterus?
what reduces LDL and increases HDL?
HDL and LDL meaning
ratio of protein to cholesterol
what slows skeletal breakdown
how many weeks is pregnancy
when does 2nd and 3rd trimester start
14 and 27
during pregnancy, what happens to estrogen
what happens to the AP during pregnancy?
increases in size... increase in thyrotropin too which increases metabolism and therefore appetite
what causes varicose veins during pregnany?
as uterus grows, it obstructs the pelvic floor
lungs ___ in size during pregnancy, but in later stages...
increase, but later the diaphragm compresses it and may cause SOB
gastric pressure during late pregnancy
may be reduced bc the fetus drops in the utuerus a little bit so the uterus does too. .... thus more pressure on bladder
Braxton hick contractions
false at week 37/late bc decrease in progesterone...
estrogen and oxytocin levels late pregnancy/partuition
estrogen stays high, oxytocin is sensitive
see partuition page bc dont need notecards as much for all but should review
when contractions are stronger and closer together (around 4 cm dilated)
during birth, this is caused to come out of the vagina bc of cervical dilation. could be a couple days before or during
how long is typical labor
uterus contraction to return to size and other organs go back to place
how much does the cervix dilate in total?
push on the cervix causes (2):
cervix dilation and thinning
myoepithelial cells of breasts
squeeze milk out
what keep breasts anchored to chest wall
aereolar cells of breast
produce lipoid fluid to prevent dryness and give infant a visible target