Prematriculation Prep: Reproduction

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 2 weeks ago by obhill
3 views
updated 2 weeks ago by obhill
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

sperm vs egg production frequency

males constantly, egg once/month

2

uterus: thin or thick?

thick, muscular

3

labor is aka

partuition

4

two muscles that help w/ sperm temperature regulation

and where are the sperm stored for temp regulation?

cremaster

clartos

in the scrotum

5

scrotum location

below testes

6

epididymis:

location/structure

function

long tubes above testes

store sperm before they go... giving them more mitochondria and develop flagella

7

vasdeferens function

bring sperm upward behind the bladder and into the urethra

8

spermatic cord

artery and vein that serves the testes

continuation of epididymus

9

vasdeferens location

in the spermatic cord; continuation of epididymis

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bhagya_Deepachandi3/publication/334545242/figure/download/fig2/AS:782316943200259@1563530302668/a-Male-reproductive-system-b-A-sagittal-section-of-the-male-reproductive-system.ppm

10

3 accessory glands of male reproductive system

seminal vesicles

prostate

bulbourethral glands

11

seminal vesicles

location and function

behind bladder

makes a fluid that is rich in fructose and alkaline

12

urethra ph

acidic

13

where does seminal fluid travelu

urethra

14

prosthetic fluid function

increases mobility of sperm once in vag

15

bulbourethral glands function

makes lubricant

16

where are androgens made

testes

17

what hormone regulates BP

aldosterone (fluid volume)

18

what prevents indefinate expansion of penis

tunica albuginea

19

what allows blood flow into the penis

cavernosal and dorsal arteries

20

what is compressed during erection

veins

21

chemicals released from nervous system for:

erection

no erection

NO (from PSNS) nitrIC oxide

norepinephrine (constricted arterioles

22

3 cylindrical compartments of penis that fill w/ blood

2 corpora cavernosa and one corpus spongiosum

23

how does blood get to penis during erection

thru urethra

24

what muscle sends sperm to penis for ejaculation

thru urethal meatus: via bulbosponglosum muscle

25

HR and BP after erection/ejaculation

lower

26

how long is the ovarian cycle?

28 days

27

what is the earliest stage follicle? (day 0)

and what is it?

primordial follicle

a primary oocyte surrounded by a layer of granulosa cells

28

what lowers the amount of FSH?

what is it produced by?

inhibin

produced by granulosa cells

29

what prevents oocyte from leaving meosis I?

zona pellucida

30

zona pellucida

keeps oocyte from leaving meosis I

separates egg from granulosa cells, but egg still nourished thru gap junctions

31

what hormone triggers egg release

LH

32

why does the zona pellucida keep it in meosis I?

prevent division and chromosome number reduction

33

what are the walls of the primary follicle called

has receptors for:

theca

have receptors for LH

34

cumulus oophorus

mound of granulosa cells that are dividing and expanding in the primary follicle... egg is floating in fluid, and this and mound separate from wall so that primary follicle is expanding in size... trying to form mature follicle

35

what causes the pelvic pain of menstrual cycle?

enzymes in follicle break down the wall of follicle as the largest secondary mature oocyte balloons out the side of the overy

36

corpus luteum if egg not fertilized?

reaches max size in 10 days ... then degenerates by apoptosis to finish on day 28

37

corpus luteum if fertilized?

travels thru the uterine tube, lives and releases hormones to promote implantation

38

when do twins happen?

accidental 2 mature follicles formed

39

antrum

fluid of secondary follicle released from granulocytes?

40

androsteindione

formed via LH + theca. converted to estrogen via granulosa cells

41

when is a female's egg supply made?

entire supply made when in womb

42

what are the germ cells of an egg called?

chromosome number?

how do they reproduce?

oogonia

2n

via mitosis...

43

how many germ cells are made for eggs and in how long?

2-4 million made in 7 months

44

after an egg germ cell, what is the next one called?

how does it reproduce?

chromosome number?

primary oocyte

2n

meosis I (note: arrested here til menstruation)

45

Secondary oocyte chromosome copy number

cut in half... n

46

polar body formed from eggs (2 scenarios)

1. when secondary oocyte is formed during puberty, it is formed. excess cytoplasm

2. when sperm fertilizes the egg. after meosis II

47

when does meosis II happen for egg

only after sperm fertilizes it

48

when is a zygote formed

when sperm and egg nuclei fuse

49

what does the corpus luteum produce?

progesterone. this is when progesterone peaks during ovarian cycle

also makes some estrogen

50

what must the corpus luteum have to survive?

FSH and LH

51

when does inhibin peak during ovarian cycle?

when corpus luteum is at maximum size. then, decreases after this peak of inhibin

52

which hormone has a hhigher peak at day 14;

FSH or LH?

estrogen or progesterone?

LH

estrogen

53

typically, estrogen and FSH/LH relationship

typically, estrogen is high with less FSH and LH. but when super high, paradoxial and has high of both. this is the day 14 peak we see.

54

what prevents uterine contractions?

progesterone

55

what causes a new endometrium at day 7-14?

estrogen (proliferation phase)

56

if implantation, what produces progesterone?

1st 3 months: corpus luteum

then: placenta

57

what is the third phase of the UTERINE cycle called?

secretory phase

day 14-21. coincides w luteal phase

58

if implanted, what hormone does the embryo produce?

HCGw

59

what is the first thing implanted called?

blastocyst

60

arteries put in place by blastocyst

spiral arteries

61

HCG

keeps corpus luteum allive, similar to LH, pregnancy test

62

primary maker of estrogen

ovaries

63

what increases smooth muscle in the uterus?

estrogen

64

what reduces LDL and increases HDL?

estrogen

65

HDL and LDL meaning

ratio of protein to cholesterol

66

what slows skeletal breakdown

estrogen

67

how many weeks is pregnancy

38.5

68

when does 2nd and 3rd trimester start

14 and 27

69

during pregnancy, what happens to estrogen

continuously rises

70

what happens to the AP during pregnancy?

increases in size... increase in thyrotropin too which increases metabolism and therefore appetite

71

what causes varicose veins during pregnany?

as uterus grows, it obstructs the pelvic floor

72

lungs ___ in size during pregnancy, but in later stages...

increase, but later the diaphragm compresses it and may cause SOB

73

gastric pressure during late pregnancy

may be reduced bc the fetus drops in the utuerus a little bit so the uterus does too. .... thus more pressure on bladder

74

Braxton hick contractions

false at week 37/late bc decrease in progesterone...

75

estrogen and oxytocin levels late pregnancy/partuition

estrogen stays high, oxytocin is sensitive

76

see partuition page bc dont need notecards as much for all but should review

...

77

active labor

when contractions are stronger and closer together (around 4 cm dilated)

78

mucus plug

during birth, this is caused to come out of the vagina bc of cervical dilation. could be a couple days before or during

79

how long is typical labor

7-20 hours

80

involution:

uterus contraction to return to size and other organs go back to place

81

how much does the cervix dilate in total?

10 cme

82

expulsion

pushing

83

push on the cervix causes (2):

uterine contractions

cervix dilation and thinning

84

myoepithelial cells of breasts

squeeze milk out

85

what keep breasts anchored to chest wall

coopers/suspensory ligaments

86

aereolar cells of breast

produce lipoid fluid to prevent dryness and give infant a visible target