Analysis of Volatile oils

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Chapter 13
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1

It is a constituents present in various plants and is defined as rapidly evaporating oil of plant derivation.

Volatile oils

2

Other terms of volatile oil

Ethereal oils(because they evaporate when expose to air at minimal temperature)

essential oils(because it produce essence)

aromatic oils(because it is used in spice and cooking)also in perfumes

3

Composition of volatile oils

mixture of terpenes, sesquiterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives and sometimes aromatic compound

4

Isolation methods of volatile oils

Steam distillation

Solvent extraction

Enfleurage

5

It is the extraction of natural products from plant material and the most popular method

Steam distillation

6

What part of a plant has the most oil content

Flowers/petals

7

Why proper storage is a must in V.O?

Because light and atmospheric 02 have adverse effect to the oils

8

What do you call the 2nd distillation in steam that takes place w/c freeze from impurities?

Rectification

9

Example of oils that undergo rectfication

Caraway oils

Turpentile oils

Australian sandal-wood oils

10

What do you call the isolation of iv.o that makes use of solvents like diethyl ether, acetone and low molecular weight hydrocarbons?

Solvent extraction

11

What is the advantage of using diethyl ether and acetone?

The ability to dissolve more oxygenated and has a high volatility

12

What do you call this method that allow the volatile substances to be absorbed by fat and then dissolved to alcohol?

Enfleurage

13

Physical methods

Specific gravity

Rotary power/ Optical rotation

Refractive index

Distillation range or limits

Solubility

14

Is determined using pycnometer expressed as that the ratio of the weight of the volume of oil to that of an equal volume of pure waer when both are determin at 25deg cel.

Specific gravity or relative density

15

The angle through which the plane of polarization is rotated when polarized light passes through a layer of liquid

Rotary power / optical Rotation

16

The official standards usually designate the temperature or range of temperature at which a definite percentage of the oil distils

Distillation range or limits

17

generally soluble in absolute alcohols, chloroform benzene and carbon disulfide

Solubility

18

Used to test purity and identity of liquid substances

Refractive index

19

Chemical Methods

Assay of Ester content, alcohol content, Aldehyde content, phenol content, volatile oils in spirit

20

Assay of phenol content

Use cassia flask

21

Assay of alcohol content

Use of acetylation flask

22

Assay of Volatile oils in spirit

Use of babcock bottle

23

Assay of aldehyde content

Use of cassia flask and the bisulfite method, hydroxylamine method

24

Assay of Ester content

Acetates alcohol

25

True or false

Refraction index use Abbe refractor

True

26

True or false

The optical measurement should be carried at temperature usually at 30-40 degree celsius

False , it should be 20-25 deg cel

27

True or false

Oils which are lighter than h20 , lacks hc, oh, esters and ketones

False, Oils which are lighter than water are high in hydrocarbons, alcohol, ester and ketones.

28

What is the main drawback of using steam distillation in the isolation of v.o from its matrix?

The decomposition of some components causing the alteration of its original odour

29

Why are essential oils in dark bottles?

Because they are photosensitive