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Nester's Microbiology
Chapters 7-9
chps 7-9 in nesters smartbook
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microbiology
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1

the three basic parts of a DNA nucleotide are

phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, nitrogenous base

2

which of these is base-paired correctly?

T-A

3

the two strands of DNA are joined to each other or held together by

hydrogen bonding

4

the two strands of DNA molecule are

antiparallel

5

the specific point on the DNA molecule where replication begins is the

origin of replication

6

early in the process of DNA replication, the enzyme ____ separates the two strands

helicase

7

DNA polymerase

requires a template for synthesis of DNA

8

if an organism lost the ability to make primase, what would it be unable to do?

synthesize a short sequence of complementary RNA to the existing DNA strand

9

two different mechanisms for copying the DNA strands are used because

the strands are orientated in opposite directions

10

DNA polymerase

can only add nucleotides in a certain direction

11

on one of the strandsof bacterial DNA, the new complementary stran is synthesized discontinuously in small pieces of DNA called

Okazaki fragments

12

one bacterial chromosome replicates to become two chromoseomes with

each made of one strand of DNA from the original chromosome and one newly synthesized strand

13

RNA is a chain of

nucleotides

14

what three components make up RNA subunits

phosphate, nitrogenous bases, ribose sugars

15

what component of RNA is different from one person (or bacterium) to the next

the order of nitrogenous bases

16

the purpose of RNA synthesis is to provide a new copy of DNA as the original strand deteriorates over time

false

17

which nucleotide is not found in RNA

thymine

18

what does the word "transcribe" mean

to make a copy

19

transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds to the

promoter on DNA

20

what role does the sigma factor of RNA polymerase have in transcription

the RNA polymerase and the mRNA dissociate from the DNA

21

the process of transcription is similar ro

the synthesis of the lading strand during DNA replication

22

after mRNA is made what generally occurs

it is translated to protein

23

unlike DNA, RNA is usually single stranded

true

24

a segment of DNA encoding a protein or RNA molecule is a

gene

25

a ____ is the physical expression of the genes present and can change depending on what genes are "turned on"

phenotype

26

why is translation needed

the subunits of nucleic acid are nucloetides while those of proteins are amino acids

27

translation is needed because

the subunits of DNA and RNA are nucleotides while those of protein are aminio acids

28

the initial transfer RNA occupies the ____ site on the ribosome

P site

29

_______ are groups of three bases in mRNA that specify one amino acid in the amino acid chain

codons

30

if the codon GGU is postioned in the A site of the ribosome which of the following would occur

a tRNA with the anticodon CCA will deliver its amino acid to the site

31

what usually terminate the process of translation

presence of a stop codon on mRNA

32

the bond connecting amino acids is a ____ bond

peptide

33

if you know the sequence of nucleotides in mRNA, you can deduce the DNA sequence it was transcribed from

true

34

which of the following shows the direction genetic information flows

DNA -> RNA -> Protein

35

protein synthesis occurs on the

ribosome

36

replication, transcription, and translation take place in the bacterial cytoplasm

true

37

one advantage of having genetic control mechanisms is

enzymes are only produced when they are needed

38

coordinated set of genes that are regulated as a single unit are referred to as

operons

39

a mechanism that blocks transcription

will block the production of mRNA

40

the lac operon is expressed when

glucose is low and lactose is present

41

in the absence of lactose the lac repressor is

active and can bind to the operator

42

Nonsense Mutation

a mutation that changes a codon that specifies an amino acid to a stop codon, resulting in premature termination of polypeptide synthesis

43

Frameshift mutation

a mutation resulting from an insertion or deletion of bases that causes change in the reading frame of the mRNA

44

Silent mutation

a mutation that changes a codon into a different codon, but both codon specify the same amino acid; this causes no change in the resulting polypeptide

45

Missense mutation

a mutation that results in changing a codon such that a different amino acid is specified

46

plasmids are

able to replicate independently of the chromosome

47

a recombinant organism

one that contains genes from another organism

48

if you find that a particular plasmid has an R factor, the bacteria that has it will be

resistant to certain antibiotics

49

the main advantage for bacteria that have the ability to carry out conjugation and other forms of genetic exchange is that

they become genetically diverse

50

F+ cells

have a plasmid and are donors in conjugation

51

the F pilus is

a protein appendage that attaches the two cells together

52

the F pilus binds to

specific receptors on the cell wall of the recipient

53

the plasmid mobilized for transfer when

an endonuclease cleaves it at the origin of transfer

54

plasmid DNA is transferred

in a single stranded form

55

the F-plasmid encodes for

the F pilus

56

the first step in conjugation is

contact between the donor and the recipient

57

after the transfer of the F plasmid is complete

the F- cell becomes F+

58

the classic transformation experiment fone by Griffith used

harmless and virulent strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae

59

transformation is a form of horizontal gene transfer that involves homologous recombination. Homologous recombination is

genetic recombination between similar or identical nucleotide sequences

60

in addition to transformation, the other two forms of horizontal gene transfer are

conjugation and transduction

61

in the beginning of transformation ___ binds to the target cell

double stranded DNA

62

during the entry of the donor DNA into the recipient cell

one strand is broken down by nucleases

63

the donor DNA

pairs with homologous region of the recipient DNA

64

mismatch repair is activated by

any difference between the nucleotide sequence in the donor and recipient DNAs

65

as a result of mismatch repair during transformation

cells may have either original DNA or donor DNA in them

66

during the process of transformation in the lab setting, cells are plated on selective media

to make sure that only the transformants grow

67

cells that are capable of bringing DNA from their environment into the cell through their cell wall are

competent

68

transformation is facilitated by

proteins on the cell wall that bind DNA

69

if Gram-positive competent cell takes up DNA containing a penicillin resistance gene, what would be added to a selective medium to isolate the transformants

penicillin

70

bacteriophages adsorb or attach

only to members of the same bacterial species

71

the basic parts of a bacteriophage are

an icosohedral head, tail, tail pins, and fibers

72

a difference between transferring plasmids and DNA fragments between bacterial cells is

plasmids can replicate independently

73

examples of advantageous genes that can be transferred by transduction are genes for

all of these

74

a virus that infects bacterial cells is called a

bateriophage

75

after entry of the bacteriophage into the host cell, a phage enzyme

breaks the host DNA into fragments

76

during maturation or formation of pahge particles

a few phage heads may surround fragments of host bacterial DNA

77

in transduction, bacterial DNA is transferred to a new cell when

it is injected by the virus carrying bacterial DNA

78

when the bacteriophage transfers bacterial DNA into a recipent bacterial cell that DNA

can integrate into the chromosome

79

after host cell DNA is broken down by a viral enzyme

phage DNA is replicated and phage coat proteins are produced

80

generalized transduction occurs when

a bacteriophage packages a piece of bacterial DNA during replication

81

two bacterial genes are transduced simultaneously. what does this suggest about the location of the two genes relative to each other

the two genes must be close together on the bacterial chromosome

82

the proofreading function of DNA polymerase reduces the error rate from about one in a million base pairs to about one in a _____

hundred million

83

improper base pairing during DNA replication causes a pause in chain elongation

true

84

the entire genome of the donor cell is usually transferred to the recipient cell

false

85

transposons are

segments of DNA