chapter 7

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1

transcription

the process of synthesizing RNA from DNA template

2

Translation

information encoded by an mRNA transcript is used to synthesize a protein/polypeptide

3

polypeptide vs protein

polypeptide = chain of amino acids

protein = functional molecule made up of one or more polypeptides

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Promoter

DNA sequences that RNA polymerase can bind to and initiate transcription

orient the direction of RNA polymerase

dictate which strand will be used as a template

"upstream" of the genes they control

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Terminator

opposite of promoter - stops the transcription

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Minus strand

DNA strand that serves as the template for transcription

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Plus strand

complement to the minus strand

same as the RNA nucleotide sequence except contains uracil

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How does a promoter dictate which DNA strand is used as the template?

they identify the regions of DNA molecules that will be transcribed through RNA polymerase

9

What is the role of tRNA in translation?

...

10

Could two mRNA molecules have different nucleotide sequences and yet code for the same protein? Explain.

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monocistronic

transcript that carries ONE gene

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polycistronic

a transcript that carries multiple genes

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sigma factor

loosely attached subunit part of RNA polymerase that recognizes the promoter

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transcription factors

proteins in eukaryotic and archaea cells to recognize promoters in RNA polymerase

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elongation phase

RNA polymerase moves along DNA to synthesize a single strand RNA molecule