Pathophysiology 370 - Chapters 7, 13, 14

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Pathophysiology
Chapters 7, 13, 14
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1

What are the side effects of chemotherapy?

anemia

nausea

bleeding

infection

2

What does -oma mean?

benign tumor

ex. adenoma

3

What does -carcinoma mean?

malignant tumor of epithelial origin

ex, adenocarcinoma

4

What does -sarcoma mean?

malignant tumor or mesenchymal origin

ex. nerve, bone, muscle

5

What does leukemia mean?

white blood cells

6

What does lymphoma mean?

malignant tumor of the lymph nodes

7

What does hepatoma mean?

malignant tumor of the liver

8

What does melanoma mean?

malignant tumor of the skin

9

What does grading of cancer include?

histologic characterization of tumor cells

degree of anaplasia

3 or 4 classes of increasing degrees of malignancy

greater degree of anaplasia = greater degree of malignant potential

10

What does staging of cancer include?

location and patterns of spread within the host

tumor size

extent of local growth

lymph node and organ involvement

distant metastasis

11

What are the deficits in the immune system function in cancer?

chemotherapy

cancer cells

cancer metastasis to bone marrow

malnutrition

12

What is immune system suppressed by?

cancer cell secretion

13

What can elude the immune system?

some cancers

14

What are tumor marker functions?

produced by normal cells

help determine cancer origin

help identify progression of cancer

include prostatic-specific antigen (PSA)

15

What is autologous BM transpant?

patients own stem cells

16

What is allogenic BM transplant?

tissue-matched individual to the patient

17

What do transfusion reactions involve?

RBC destruction caused by recipient antibodies

18

What does not have red blood cells?

cytoplasmic organelles

19

What are the blood levels for iron deficiency?

low MCHC

low MCH

low MCV

20

What is transported in the blood stream as bicarbonate ion?

carbon dioxide

21

What can bilirubin detect?

excessive red blood cell lysis

22

What do kidneys produce?

erythropoietin

23

What is necessary for red blood cell production?

iron

24

What are the lab values for vitamin K deficiency?

normal bleeding time

normal platelet count

increased PT / INR

25

What leads to pancytopenia?

aplastic anemia

26

What is caused by intrinsic factor?

pernicious anemia

27

What are the functions of the circulatory system?

circulate oxygen and removes CO2

provides cells with nutrients

removes waste products of metabolism to the excretory organs for disposal

protects the body against disease and infection

transports hormones to target cells and organs

helps regulate body temperature

28

What are the values for hemophilia?

prolonged bleeding time

prolonged aPTT

normal platelet count

29

What does vitamin K deficiency in newborns present with?

melena

bleeding from umbilicus

hematuria

30

What can prolong bleeding time?

aspirin

31

What can cause thrombocytopenia?

chemotherapy

32

What can lead to clotting factor deficiency?

dysfunction of the liver

33

What does bleeding time assess?

platelet and vascular response or interaction

normal value 3 - 10 min

34

What does prolonged aPTT assess?

intrinsic pathway of coagulation

normal value 33 - 45 sec

35

What does the normal platelet count assess?

determines number of platelets

normal value 150000 - 400,000

36

What does prothrombin time (PT) assess?

evaluates extrinsic pathway of coagulation

10-14 sec

37

What does the international rate (INR) time assess?

evaluates extrinsic pathway of coagulation

1.5 (low-level anticoagulation for aFIB)

2.0 - 3.0 (medium level anticoagulation for DVT, pulmonary embolism, MI, stroke prophylaxis)

2.5 - 3.5 (high-level anticoagulation for mechanical heart valve)

38

What does venous occlusion manifest?

distal ischemia

39

What does arterial occlusion manifest?

edema

40

What are the differences between thrombosis and embolism?

Thrombosis: immobile; formed in vessel or heart chamber

Embolism: mobile; formed in blood stream

41

What occurs when exposed to certain drugs ?

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency anemia