Bio Chem - Exam 4

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 10 days ago by Lauren_Grabeau
6 views
updated 9 days ago by Lauren_Grabeau
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

For fatty acids containing a polar carboxylic acid group and a polar hydrocarbon chain, solubility in water is determined by

a. the length of the hydrocarbon chain

b. the hydrophobicity of the carboxylic acid group

c. the number of double bonds

d. the hydrophilicity of the hydrocarbon chain

a. the length of the hydrocarbon chain

2

ATP-synthase, an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP, is found in the

a. outer membrane

b. matrix

c. inner membrane

d. the inner membrane and the matrix

e. inter membrane space

d. the inner membrane and the matrix

3

Two molecules of carbon dioxide are released for every turn of the citric acid cycle. What happens to those molecules of carbon dioxide?

a. they undergo oxidative phosphorylation

b. they stay within the citric acid cycle, contributing to the cyclic nature of the pathway

c. they are used in anabolic processes

d. they are exhaled

d. they are exhaled

4

Which of the following statements describes what can happen to pyruvate after it is produced during glycolysis (consider all option in the presence of absence of O2).

I. Pyruvate immediately enters the citric acid cycle.

II. It is oxidized to Acetyl-CoA.

III. It is reduced to lactate.

a. I only

b. II and III

c. I and II

d. II only

e. III only

b. II and III

5

Gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of

a. pyruvate from glucose

b. glycogen from glucose

c. glucose fron non-carbohydrate precursors

d. fatty acids from glucose

c. glucose fron non-carbohydrate precursors

6

What is the role of ATP synthase in the synthesis of ATP?

a. ATP synthase catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP reaction

b. ATP synthase allows protons to flow into the matrix through its proton channel

c. ATP synthase captures ADP and PI-

d. All of the above are roles of ATP synthase

d. all of the above are roles of ATP synthase

7

Complex I of the electron transport chain oxidizes ______________, reduces ______________, and _____________ protons in the process.

a. NADH; coenzyme Q; pumps

b. cytochrome c; coenzyme Q; dosen't pump

c. NADH; coenzyme Q; doesn't pump

d. cytochrome c; coenzyme Q; pumps

a. NADH; coenzyme Q; pumps

8

Amphipathic molecule can interact with both lipids and water because they contain

a. an ester

b. polar regions and non polar regions

c. sphingosine

d. cholesterol

e. saturated fatty acids

b. polar regions and non polar regions

9

What type of reaction occurs in the electron transport chain?

a. protonation-deprotonation

b. oxidation-reduction

c. isomerization

d. hydration-dehydration

b. oxidation-reduction

10

The citric acid cycle is a unique metabolic pathway because it is cyclic. Which statement BEST describes how it is cyclic?

a. It is cyclic because FAD and NAD+ are reduced

b. It is cyclic because it is linked with oxidative phosphorylation

c. It is cyclic because oxaloacetate is regenerated

d. It is cyclic because CO2 is regenerated

c. It is cyclic because oxaloacetate is regenerated

11
card image

The following is step 3 of the citric acid cycle. During this step, NAD+ is ______________, while isocitrate is _______________.

a. reduced; oxidized

b. hydrated; dehydrated

c. oxidized; reduced

d. isomerization; dehydrated

a. reduced; oxidized

12

What ultimately happens to oxygen as a result of the electron transport chain?

a. It is incorporated into a variety of biomolecules

b. It forms carbon dioxide

c. It is exhaled

d. It is reduced to water

e. It is transported by hemoglobin

d. It is reduced to water

13

Which statement BEST describes the body's purpose in making lactic acid from pyruvate?

a. to produce NAD+ for use in glycolysis

b. to regenerate ADP

c. to produce FADH2 for use in glycolysis

d. to raise pH of the immediate environment

a. to produce NAD+ for use in glycolysis

14

Where does ATP synthase get the energy required to drive ATP synthesis?

a. from the hydrolysis of ATP

b. the potential energy from the proton motive force

c. from the reduction of oxygen

d. from the reduction of NAD+

b. the potential energy from the proton motive force

15

Energy released from the citric acid is found in the form of

a. NADH, FADH2, CoA

b. NAD+, FAD, ATP

c. NADH, FADH2, GTP

d. NADPH, FADH2, GTP

c. NADH, FADH2, GTP

16
card image

Is the molecule below in cis or trans configuration?

a. trans

b. cis

c. neither, this fatty acid is saturated

b. cis

17

Using the Omega naming system of lipids, which carbon is labeled at C1?

a. the C bonded to a heteroatom

b. the C making the double bond

c. the C farthest from the carbonyl carbon

d. the C closest to the carbonyl carbon

c. the C farthest from the carbonyl carbon

18

Which of the following is NOT a purpose of the cell membrane?

a. to facilitate transport of nutrient and waste

b. to communicate with chemical messengers

c. to separate the contents of the cell from external fluids

d. to synthesize proteins

d. to synthesize proteins

19

Which of the following choices is the key outcome of the citric acid cycle?

a. FAD and NAD+ are reduced

b. ADP is phosphorylated

c. Biomolecules are catabolized

d. Oxygen is consumed

a. FAD and NAD+ are reduced

20

Which of the following molecules would you expect to be able to diffuse through a plasma membrane?

I. CO2

II. O2

III. glucose

IV. ATP

V. protons

a. V and II

b. IV and V

c. I and II

d. III and IV

c. I and II

21

Which statement BEST describes the body's purpose in making lactic acid from pyruvate?

a. to raise the pH of the immediate environment

b. to regenerate NAD+ for use in glycolysis

c. to regenerate ADP

d. to regenerate FADH2 for use in glycolysis

b. to regenerate NAD+ for use in glycolysis

22

The ATP synthesized during catabolic processes is used to provide energy for _________________ processes in the cell.

a. oxidative

b. slow

c. unusual

d. downhill

e. anabolic

e. anabolic

23

The following reactions are several steps in the conversion of acetyl coenzyme A to carbon dioxide. Which of the reactions is an energetically uphill reaction?

I. Acetyl-CoA + Oxaloacetate + H2O → Citrate + CoA-SH + H+ ΔG = -7.7 kcal/mol

II. Citrate → Isocitrate ΔG = +1.5 kcal/mol

III. Isocitrate + NAD+ → α-ketoglutarate + NADH + CO2 + H+ ΔG = -1.7 kcal/mol

IV. α-ketoglutarate + NAD+ + CoA-SH → Succinyl-CoA + NADH + CO2 + H ΔG = -8.0 kcal/mol

a. IV only

b. II only

c. I, III, and IV

d. III and IV

e. III only

b. II only

24

Which statement BEST describes the electron transport chain?

a. It is another name for the citric acid cycle

b. It is the same thing as catabolism

c. It is cyclic, where the same oxygens are used over and over to transport electrons

d. It is a series of protein complexes that transfer electrons from NADH and FADH2 to oxygen

d. It is a series of protein complexes that transfer electrons from NADH and FADH2 to oxygen

25
card image

Which of the fatty acids are saturated?

a. Only IV, V, and VI

b. Only II and III

c. Only I, II, and III

d. Only I, IV, V, and VI

d. Only I, IV, V, and VI

26

The gluconeogenesis pathway is not the exact opposite pathway of glycolysis. Which of the following is true of gluconeogenesis?

a. It does not require any energy input

b. Gluconeogenesis can only use lactate as a starting material

c. It uses many of the same enzymes as glycolysis, but has alternate steps to bypass the irreversible steps of glycolysis

d. It regenerates the ATP that is used during the energy input phase of glycolysis

c. It uses many of the same enzymes as glycolysis, but has alternate steps to bypass the irreversible steps of glycolysis

27

Even though there are more protons in the inter membrane space of the mitochondria, protons do not diffuse from there into the matrix. Why not?

a. This would require energy

b. Only water diffuses, not protons

c. They are not charged

d. The inner mitochondrial membrane is not permeable to them

d. The inner mitochondrial membrane is not permeable to them

28

If your running away from an apex predator,

a. both your liver call and your leg muscle cells will be running gluconeogenesis

b. your liver cells will be running glycolysis and your leg muscle cells will be running gluconeogenesis

c. both your liver and your leg muscle cells will be running glycolysis

d. your liver cells will be running gluconeogenesis and your leg muscle cells will be running glycolysis

d. your liver cells will be running gluconeogenesis and your leg muscle cells will be running glycolysis

29

The type of molecules that make up the majority of the cell membrane are

a. steroids

b. carbohydrates

c. phospholipids

d. cholesterol

e. transmembrane proteins

c. phospholipids

30

The Cori cycle involves the following:

a. Conversion of lactate produced in the liver by regeneration of glucose in the muscle

b. Conversion of lactate produced in the muscle by regeneration of glucose in the liver

c. Conversion of NADH produced in the muscle by regeneration of glucose in the liver

d. Conversion of pyruvate produced in the muscle by regeneration of glucose in the liver

b. Conversion of lactate produced in the muscle by regeneration of glucose in the liver

31

Most enzymes involved in the citric acid cycle are found in the _______________ of the mitochondria.

a. inner membrane

b. outer membrane

c. matrix

d. the citric acid cycle does not occur in the mitochondria

e. inter membrane space

c. matrix

32

Where in the cell does oxidative phosphorylation occur?

a. in the ribosomes

b. in the mitochondria

c. in the cytoplasm

d. in the nucleus

b. in the mitochondria

33

In the classical equation for respiration:

Glucose + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O

The following molecules are found directly in the citric acid cycle:

a. all of these are found in the citric acid cycle

b. glucose

c. O2

d. CO2

d. CO2

34

In the electron transport chain, one NADH molecule supplies the energy to phosphorylate _____________ ADP molecules, and one FADH2 supplies the energy to phosphorylate ____________ ADP molecules.

a. 2.5; 1.5

b. 1; 1

c. 2; 2

d. 3; 3

e. 2; 3

a. 2.5; 1.5

35
card image

When acetyl coenzyme A is hydrolyzed during the citric acid cycle, which high energy bond in the molecule is broken at the start of the citric acid cycle?

a. bond d

b. bond b

c. bond e

d. bond a

e. bond c

d. bond a

36

The NADH that is produced by glycolysis under anaerobic conditions in muscle cells is regenerated to NAD+ by the conversion of

a. lactate to pyruvate

b. pyruvate to lactate

c. phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate

d. acetaldehyde to ethanol

b. pyruvate to lactate

37

Which statement does NOT describe conditions under which lactic acid is formed?

a. Lactic acid is formed when oxygen is depleted

b. Lactic acid is formed in aerobic conditions

c. Lactic acid is produced by bacterial fermentation

d. Lactic acid is formed during vigorous exercise

b. Lactic acid is formed in aerobic conditions

38

What is the role of coenzyme Q and cytochrome c in the election transport chain?

a. They pump protons from the inter membrane space to the matrix

b. They carry coenzymes from one protein complex to the next protein complex

c. They carry electrons from one protein complex to the next protein complex

d. They pump protons from the matrix to the inter membrane space

c. They carry electrons from one protein complex to the next protein complex

39
card image

The following figure illustrates a proton gradient. In the figure, protons are indicated by small circles. Which part of the figures has the lower pH?

a. part II because it has a higher concentration of protons

b. part I because it has a higher concentration of protons

c. part II because it has a lower concentration of protons

d. part I because it has a lower concentration of protons

a. part II because it has a higher concentration of protons

40

Anaerobic metabolic can occur in all of these organisms or cells, except

a. muscle cells inner strenuous activity

b. red blood cells

c. yeast

d. all of these are correct

d. all of these are correct

41

Which process does NOT occur in the mitochondria?

a. citric acid cycle

b. oxidative phosphorylation

c. glycolysis

d. all of these occur in the mitochondria

c. glycolysis

42

The pH of the mitochondrial matrix is __________ the pH of the inter membrane space.

a. higher than

b. the same as

c. lower than

a. higher than

43

L-malate is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle. What does the L imply about L-malate?

a. L-malate is chiral

b. L-malate is an amino acid

c. L-malate is high reactive

d. L-malate is non-reducible

a. L-malate is chiral

44
card image

Which of the fatty acids shown below are saturated?

a. stearic acid and palmitic acid

b. stearic acid

c. all of these are saturated

d. arachidonic acid

e. oleic acid, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid

a. stearic acid and palmitic acid

45

What ultimately happens to oxygen as a result of the electron transport chain?

a. It forms carbon dioxide

b. It is transported by hemoglobin

c. It is reduced to water

d. It is exhaled

c. It is reduced to water

46

Which process does NOT occur in the mitochondria?

a. oxidative phosphorylation

b. citric acid cycle

c. glycolysis

e. all of these occur in the citric acid cycle

c. glycolysis

47

What is produced by cellular respiration?

a. carbon dioxide, water, and energy

b. oxygen

c. sugars

d. oxygen and energy

e. oxygen, sugars, and energy

a. carbon dioxide, water, and energy

48

Overall, how much ATP is provided when 1 molecule of glucose is oxidized to 6 molecules of carbon dioxide through glycolysis, aerobic oxidation of pyruvate, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation?

a. 99 ATP

b. 32 ATP

c. 10 ATP

d. the number of ATP is highly variable

b. 32 ATP

49
card image

Which figure BEST illustrates how the lipid bilayer is normally arranged in a cell membrane?

a. figure d

b. figure c

c. figure a

d. figure b

e. the bilayer would disintegrate

c. figure a

50
card image

What type of biomolecule is shown below?

a. a nucleic acid

b. a saturated fatty acid

c. an amino acid

d. a polyunsaturated fatty acid

e. a sugar

d. a polyunsaturated fatty acid