Micro Final: exam 3

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1

transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota in that transit microbiota

a. never cause disease

b. are present for a relatively short time

c. are found in a certain location on the host

d. cause diseases

e. are always acquired by contact

b

2

the rise in herd immunity amongst a population can be directly attributed to

a. improved handwashing

b. vaccinations

c. increased use of antibiotics

d. none of the answers is correct

b

3

the science that seals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called

a. communicable disease

b. public health

c. ecology

d. morbidity and mortality

e. epidemiology

e

4

During a six-month period, 239 cases of pneumonia occurred in a town of 300 people. A clinical case was defined as fever ≥ 39°C lasting >2 days with three or more symptoms (i.e., chills, sweats, severe headache, cough, aching muscles/joints, fatigue, or feeling ill). A laboratory-confirmed case was defined as a positive result for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii. Before the outbreak, 2000 sheep were kept northwest of the town. Of the 20 sheep tested from the flock, 15 were positive for C. burnetiiantibodies. Wind blew from the northwest, and rainfall was 0.5 cm compared with 7 to 10 cm during each of the previous three years.

The above situation is an example of

a. a zoonosis

b. a human reservoir

c. a nonliving reservoir

d. a focal infection

a

5

which of the following is untrue about how disease are transmitted

a. foodborne transmission: a person can ingest food contaminated with bacteria and become ill

b. fomite: touching a tissue that someone else sneezed into

c. vehicle transmission: drinking or swimming in water contaminated by bacteria can make a person sick

d. congenital transmission: a pregnant mother can pass a disease in to the baby in her womb

e. droplet transmission: getting a cold after staying out in the rain

e

6

a healthcare-associated infection is:

a. always caused by pathogenic bacteria

b. always present, but is inapparent at the time of hospitalization

c. acquired during the course of hospitalization

d. always caused by medical personnel

e. only a result of surgery

c

7

biological transmission differs from mechanical transmission in that biological transmission

a. involves reproduction of a pathogen in an arthropod print to transmission

b. occurs when a pathogen is carried on the feet of an insect

c. requires direct contact

d. works only with noncommunicable diseases

e. involved fomites

a

8

normal and transient microbiota can become opportunistic pathogens

true

false

true

9

siderophores are bacterial proteins that complete with the hosts

a. white blood cells

b. antibodies

c. iron-transport proteins

d. red blood cells

e. receptors

c

10

In A-B exotoxins, the A component binds to the host cell receptor so that the B component can enter the cell

true

false

false

11

all of the following are used by bacteria to attach to host cells except

a. ligans

b. m protein

c. fimbriae

d. capusles

e. A-B toxins

e

12

symptoms of intense inflammation and shock occur in some gram-positive bacterial infection due to the immune systems response to

a. membrane disrupting toxins

b. lipid A

c. A-B toxins

d. erythrogenic toxin

e. superantigens

e

13

bacteria such as E. coli and Salmonella produce invasions that bind host cells, thus causing cells to

a produce iron-binding proteins

b. destroy the bacteria

c. engulf the bacteria

d. release TNF

e release cytokines

c

14

injectable drugs are tested for endotoxins by

a. counting the viable bacteria

b. culturing bacteria

c. the limulus ameoboycte lysate test

d. filtering out the cells

e. looking for turbidity

c

15

which of the following is NOT a way that microbes evade phagocytosis

a. lyse phagocytes

b. inhibit adherance

c. escape phagosome

d. prevent phagosome-lysosome fusion

e. produce toxins

e

16

all of the following increase blood vessel permeability EXCEPT

a. kinins

b. leukotrienes

c. protoglandins

d. lysozymes

e. histamine

d

17

innate immunity

a. provides increase susceptibility to disease

b. involves a memory component

c. is slower that adaptive immunity in responding pathogens

c. involves T cells and B cells

d. is nonspecific and present at birth

d

18

a child false and suffers a deep cut on her leg. the cut went through her skin and she is bleeding. which of the following defense mechanisms will participate in eliminating contaminating microbes?

a. phagocytosis in the inflammatory response

b. normal skin flora

c. lysozyme

d. acidic skin secretions

e. musculocillary escalator

a

19

margination refers to

a. the chemotactic response of phagocytes

b. adherence of phagocytes to the lining of blood vessels

c. dilation of blood vessels

d. the movement of phagocytes through walls of blood vessels

e. the adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms

b

20

the function of the cilliary escalator is to

a. kill microorganisms in the lower respiratory tract

b. trap inhaled dust and microorganisms in mucus and propel it away from the lower respiratory tract

c. trap microorganisms in mucus in the upper respiratory tract

d. propel inhaled dust and microorganisms toward the mouth, away from the lower respiratory tract

e. remove microorganisms form the gastrointestinal tract

b

21

each of the following is an effect of compliment activation EXCEPT

a. opsonization

b. bacteria cell lysis

c. increase phagocytic activity

d. interference with viral replication

e. increased blood vessel permeability

d

22

a chill is a sign that

a. body temperature is falling

b. body temperature is not changing

c. blood vessels are dilating

d. body temperature is rising

e. the metabolic rate is decreasing

d

23

which of the following is involved in resistance to parasitic helminths

a. eosinophils

b. basophils

c. neutrophils

d. lymphocytes

e. monocytes

a

24

which of the following is an effect of opsonization

a. inflammation

b. cytolysis

c. increased diapedesis of phagocytes

d. increased margination of phagocytes

e. increased adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms

e

25

all of the following protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection EXCEPT

a. HCI

b. multiple layers of cells

c. the "cilliary escalator"

d. tears

e. saliva

a

26

TLRs attach to all of the following except

a. PAMPs

b. antimicrobial peptides

c. peptidoglycan

d. lipopolysaccharide outer membrane

e. flagellin

b

27

which non specific defense mechanism is mismatched with its associated body structure or body fluid

a. keratin and tightly packed cells - skin

b. serum and sebum - ear

c. musculociliary escalator - intestines

d. lysozyme - tears and saliva

e. very acidic pH - stomach

c

28

IFN-a and IFN-b are produced in response so

a. helminthic infection

b. viral infection

c. parasitic infection

d. fungal infection

e. bacterial infection

b

29

macrophages arise from which of the following?

a. lymphocytes

b. neurophils

c. eosinophils

d. monocytes

e. basophils

d

30

which of the following is the most numerous leukocyte

a. lymphocyes

b. monocyte

c. eosinophi

d. neutrophil

e. basophil

d

31

which of the following is the best definition of epitope

a. specific regions on antigens that interact with haptens

b. specific regions on antigens that interact with antibodies

c. specific regions on antigens that interact with MHC class molecules

d. specific regions on antigens that interact with T-cell receptors

e. specific regions on antigens that interact with performs

b

32

which of the following cells in not an APC

a. dendritic cells

b. none of the answers is correct; all of these are APC's

c. natural killer cells

d. macrophages

e. mature B cells

c

33

when an antibody binds to a toxin, the resulting action is referred to as

a. neutralization

b. opsonization

c. apoptosis

d. ADCC

e. agglutination

a

34

the specificity of an antibody is due to

a. the heavy chains

b. its valance

c. the variable portions of the heavy and light chains

d. the light chains

e. the constant portions of the heavy and light chains

c

35

which of the following is NOT a characteristic of cellular immunity

a. B cells make antibodies

b. the cells originate in the bone marrow

c. T cell mature in the thymus gland

d. it can regulate the immune response

e. T cells react with antigens

a

36

which of the following is the best definition of antigen?

a. a molecule that can bind to antibodies and cause more antibodies to be produced

b. a pathogen

c. a protein that combines with antibodies

d. a virus

e. something forge in in the body

a

37

which of the following WBCs are NOT lymphocytes

a. macrophages

b. helper T cells

c. NK cells

d. B cells

e. cytotoxic T cells

a

38

ADCC is a process that is most effective in destroying

a. extracellular viruses

b. bacterial toxins

c. eukaryotic pathogens

d. prions

e. bacterial pathogens

c