Chapter 23, 24, 25
What are the most common organs affected by granulomas from sarcoidosis?
What are other organs are affected by granulomas from sarcoidosis?
What is the hallmark for acute respiratory distress syndrome?
What is a cause of hypersenstivity pneumonitis?
inhalation of organic substances
What leads to tension pneumothorax?
Air that enters the pleural space during inspiration but is unable to exit during expiration
What are types of restrictive respiratory disorders?
Pneumothorax and ARDS
What is seen on an x-ray for interstitial lung disease?
Loss of alveolar walls
immunological in nature
What are the common characteristics of sarcoidosis?
Presence of CD4+ cells
non productive cough
What are the clinical manifestations of pleural effusion?
diminished breath sounds
What is a risk factor for hypophosphatemia?
What is a risk factor for hypercalcemia?
What increases neuromuscular excitability?
What is a symptom of clinical dehydration?
Decreased urine output
What are the clinical manifestations of hyponatremia?
What is the relationship between metabolic acidosis and hypokalemia?
Hypokalemia pushes the hydrogen ions (H+) into the cells which increases the excretion of metabolic acid from the kidneys
Which system compensates for metabolic acidosis and alkalosis?
Which system compensates for respiratory acidosis and alkalosis?
What is the compensatory mechanism for hypoventilation?
What can cause respiratory alkalosis?
What can cause respiratory acidosis?
What is an early sign of metabolic acidosis?
What includes an increase in carbonic acid?
How is renal compensation for respiratory acidosis shown?
Elevated bicarbonate ion concentration
What is unable to excrete carbonic acid?
What is unable to excrete metabolic acid?
What is a cause for hypomagnesemia?
What can cause hypernatremia?
Decreased antidiuretic hormone
What can cause metabolic acidosis?
What is a sign of hypernatremia?
What are manifestations of moderate to severe hypokalemia?
Muscle weakness and cardiac dysrhythmias
What is pulmonary stenosis?
usually due to abnormal fusion of the valvular cusps and can lead to right ventricular hypertrophy