Chapter 23, 24, 25

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Pathophysiology
Chapter 23
Chapter 23 - Restrictive Pulmonary Disorders Chapter 24 - Fluid Imbalances & Electrolytes Chapter 25 -Acid-Base Homeostasis and Imbalances
updated 5 months ago by acemeister123
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1

What are the most common organs affected by granulomas from sarcoidosis?

lymph nodes

lung tissue

2

What are other organs are affected by granulomas from sarcoidosis?

skin

eyes

spleen

liver

kidney

bone marrow

3

What is the hallmark for acute respiratory distress syndrome?

Hypoxemia

4

What is a cause of hypersenstivity pneumonitis?

inhalation of organic substances

5

What leads to tension pneumothorax?

Air that enters the pleural space during inspiration but is unable to exit during expiration

6

What are types of restrictive respiratory disorders?

Pneumothorax and ARDS

7

What is seen on an x-ray for interstitial lung disease?

Loss of alveolar walls

immunological in nature

"honeycomb" appearance

8

What are the common characteristics of sarcoidosis?

Presence of CD4+ cells

non productive cough

granulomas

fatigue

weight loss

fever

9

What are the clinical manifestations of pleural effusion?

Dyspnea

diminished breath sounds

tracheal shift

10

What is a risk factor for hypophosphatemia?

antacids

11

What is a risk factor for hypercalcemia?

Hyperparathyroidism

12

What increases neuromuscular excitability?

Hypocalcemia

Hypomagnesemia

13

What is a symptom of clinical dehydration?

Decreased urine output

14

What are the clinical manifestations of hyponatremia?

Confusion

lethargy

coma

perhaps seizures

15

What is the relationship between metabolic acidosis and hypokalemia?

Hypokalemia pushes the hydrogen ions (H+) into the cells which increases the excretion of metabolic acid from the kidneys

16

Which system compensates for metabolic acidosis and alkalosis?

Respiratory system

17

Which system compensates for respiratory acidosis and alkalosis?

Renal system

18

What is the compensatory mechanism for hypoventilation?

Respiratory response

19

What can cause respiratory alkalosis?

Hyperventilation

20

What can cause respiratory acidosis?

Hypoventilation

21

What is an early sign of metabolic acidosis?

Headache

22

What includes an increase in carbonic acid?

Respiratory acidosis

23

How is renal compensation for respiratory acidosis shown?

Elevated bicarbonate ion concentration

24

What is unable to excrete carbonic acid?

Kidneys

25

What is unable to excrete metabolic acid?

Lungs

26

What is a cause for hypomagnesemia?

Chronic alcoholism

27

What can cause hypernatremia?

Decreased antidiuretic hormone

28

What can cause metabolic acidosis?

Diarrhea

29

What is a sign of hypernatremia?

Confusion

30

What are manifestations of moderate to severe hypokalemia?

Muscle weakness and cardiac dysrhythmias

31

What is pulmonary stenosis?

usually due to abnormal fusion of the valvular cusps and can lead to right ventricular hypertrophy