Legters Bio260 exam 1 chapter 3 study guide questions

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1

describe the different shapes of bacterial cells

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2

describe the different groupings of bacterial cells

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3

what is biofilm?

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4

why is it important to study prokaryotic cell structures?

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5

what is the main function of the cytoplasmic membrane for bacteria?

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6

describe the organization and functions of the lipid and protein components of the cytoplasmic membrane

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7

what is osmosis

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8

explain the effects of the following solutions on bacterial cells:

a) pure distilled water

b) high sugar or high salt solution (higher solute concentration)

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9

how would the effects (from the previous question 8) differ for bacteria that have damaged cell walls?

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10

describe passive and active transport systems in the cytoplasmic membrance

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11

what is the main function of the cell wall for bacteria?

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12

describe the composition of peptidoglycan (PG) - including N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmuramic acid, and tetrapeptide chains

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13

describe the composition and structure of Gram(+) bacterial cell walls

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14

what are some functions of cell wall proteins for Gram(+) bacteria?

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15

describe the composition and structure of Gram(-) cell walls

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16

what aspect of the Gram(-) cell wall makes these bacteria relatively insensitive to lysosomes, bile salts, and many antibiotics?

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17

what is the main function of outer membrane proteins for Gram(-) bacteria?

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18

what is lipolysaccharide (LPS)?

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19

describe the organization of O-polysaccharide and lipid A in LPS

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20

why is O-polysaccharide useful for bacterial identification?

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21

what is endotoxin? how can endotoxin get into the bloodstream? how does endotoxin affect the body?

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22

list the four steps of Gram staining and explain the purpose of each step

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23

what colors are expected for Gram(+) cs. Gram(-) cells after each step of the staining procedure?

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24

explain how the antibiotic penicillin and the enzyme lysozyme affect Gram(+) vs. Gram(-) cells

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25

describe the following exceptions to Gram(+) or Gram(-) cell walls :

a) mycobacteria

b) archaea

c) mycoplasma

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26

describe the composition and explain the main functions of capsules for bacteria

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27

why do bacteria with capsules act more virulent compared to bacteria without capsules?

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28

what does it mean to say that capsule components are antigenic?

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29

explain the use of capsular polysaccharides as vaccines

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30

describe the structure, arrangments, and movement of bacterial flagella

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31

what is the main function of flagella for bacteria?

mobility

32

describe the structure and function of pili (fimbriae) for bacteria

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33

what role do pili play in bacterial disease?

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34

explain the function of sex pili for bacteria

DNA transfer

35

how do sex pili provide one way for bacteria to acquire new genes?

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36

describe the composition and structure of a typical prokaryotic chromosome

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37

explain how genetic diversity contributes to evolution by natural selection

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38

give several reasons why prokaryotes evolve so quickly

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39

what are plasmids and how do they contribute to prokaryotic genetic diversity?

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40

give a few examples of the importance of plasmids

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41

describe the structure and function of ribosomes

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42

what are some of the substances in storage granules of bacteria?

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43

describe the procedures used to identify acid-fast bacteria

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44

describe the procedures used to see endospores

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45

what are the expected staining results and observed cell shapes for each type of bacteria used in lab?

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46

explain the effects of hypertonic or hypotonic surroundings on Gram(+) penicillin treated bacterial cells

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47

explain the effects of hypertonic or hypotonic surroundings on Gram(-) penicillin treated bacterial cells

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