American Pageant Chapter 5

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1

Jonathan Edwards

American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated the Great Awakening, a period of renewed interest in religion in America; famous speech "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"

2

Benjamin Franklin

One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity. He was also the author of Poor Richard's Almanac.

3

George Whitefield

Masterful orator, rekindled the religiousness of the colonies during the Great Awakening. He was a leader of the "new lights"

4

John Peter Zenger

A newspaper printer from New York, was arrested and tried for seditious libel for attacking the royal governor. He was acquitted with the help of his lawyer, Andrew Hamilton. This was a huge step for the freedom of the press.

5

Phillis Wheatley

A slave girl from Boston, became a distinguished poet and was brought to England, where she published a book of her verses

6

John Copley

An American painter who fled to England to avoid the American Revolution, as he was regarded as a Loyalist.

7

Charles Peale

An American painter famous for his portraits of George Washington who dabbled in a variety of other areas, such as taxonomy and dentistry.

8

Paxton Boys

A group of Scots-Irish from the outskirts of Philadelphia, protested the Quakers' leniency toward the Indians. Their actions sparked the Regulator Movement in North Carolina

9

Great Awakening

A period of huge religious revival throughout the colonies, sparked by a few strong religious speakers, called the "new lights."

10

Regulator Movement

A movement in North Carolina where dissenters, mostly Scots-Irish, believed that tax money was being dealt unfairly

11

Old Lights

Conservative clergymen who were against the emotional approach of the Great Awakening

12

New Lights

Clergymen who defended the Great Awakening for reinvigorating American religion

13

seditious libel

The crime of openly criticizing a public official

14

Triangular Trade

A trade between America, the West Indies, and Africa, which some colonists took advantage of after the fall of the Royal African Company, and yielded great profits to its merchants.

15

Molasses Act

An act intended to end American trade with the French West Indies passed by Britain, which was largely overridden by smuggling and bribery.

16

examples of established churches

Churches funded by taxes, such as the Anglican and Congregational churches

17

almshouses

Houses designated to aid the widows and orphans of Philadelphia and New York

18

gentry

The most powerful members of a society

19

provincial

Limited in outlook to ones own small corner of the world

20

Poor Richard's Almanac

A bestselling book written by Benjamin Franklin that was a compilation of many different sayings

21

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

One of Jonathan Edwards' most famous sermons, which warned listeners of Hell

22

Baptists Church

A church founded by Roger Williams, which was largely based on Calvinism

23

Anglicans

A group of Protestants (within the Church of England) that wanted to establish a church who would be led by the English monarchy while maintaining their Catholic traditions without the Pope.

24

royal colonies

Colonies controlled by the British king through governors appointed by him and through the king's veto power over colonial laws.

25

proprietary colonies

Colonies under authority of individuals granted charters of ownership by the king.

26

Harvard

The oldest college in America, which reflected Puritan commitment to an educated ministry

27

William and Mary

Public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States; founded in 1693- Anglican

28

Yale University

The third institution of higher learning in the United States was founded in 1701 - founded by Congregationalists