American Pageant Chapter 37
What were some of the emotional scars left by the Great Depression?
Insecurity had pushed up the suicide rate, dampened the marriage rate, women leading the household as the major bread winner (women were hired because they were cheaper labor).
What was the fear for men and women following WWII?
The GIs would step out of the army's chow lines and back into the breadlines of the unemployed.
What does the term GDP stand for? What does it represent?
Gross Domestic Product; the total of all goods and services in the United States (11.5 trillion per year)
This act will be vetoed by President Truman, but the Republican Congress will override his veto to pass the act which outlawed the "closed" (all-union) shop, made unions liable for damages that resulted from jurisdictional disputes among themselves, and required union leaders to take a noncommunist oath.
What was the name of the strategy by the Congress of Industrial Organizations that was aimed at unionizing the Southern textile workers and steelworkers in the late 1940s?
Operation Dixie (failed miserably)
What is the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 better known as? What did it do?
GI Bill; Made generous provisions for sending the former soldiers to school.
The prosperity of the 1950s helped to underwrite which social movements?
Civil Rights, Women's rights, vast new welfare programs (Medicare and Medicaid).
This economic class will grow after WWII showing that the Great Depression was over?
What income level made up this new economic class (1950s dollars)?
$3,000 - $10,000
By 1960, what percentage of Americans owned their own home?
What jobs will women fill post-WWII?
Service jobs and the service industry will be the greatest employer from 1970 to the present
What elements will help fuel the economic upturn of the 1950s?
Massive appropriations for the Korean War, and defense spending accounted for some 10 percent of the GNP.
What corporation will be one of the "think tanks" financed by the military's research and development budget?
Where did the United States acquire their cheap energy from which helped to fuel our economy? Why will this cheap energy replace the energy coming from Texas?
Middle East; Very easy to get the oil out of the ground and the quality is much easier to refine.
What will the US reaction be to the possible inexhaustible oil reserves in the Middle East?
Endless ribbons of highways, installed air-conditioning in homes and engineered a six-fold increase in the electric power.
By 1970 nearly _____ % of the school-age population was enrolled in educational institutions—a dramatic increase since 1900. What are some of the consequences caused by this increased enrollment in educational institutions?
90%; Lower test scores; higher dropout rates; loss of skill based employees.
By the 1990s, what percentage of the American population did farm labor make up in the US economy?
This area of the United States increased its population at a rate nearly double that of the old industrial zones?
Name the top five states which gained population from 1950 - 2000?
Nevada (1,148%), Arizona (584%), Florida (477%), Alaska (387%), Colorado (224%)
What are the two types of loans that will help fuel the housing boom post-WWII?
VA (Veterans Administration) and FHA (Federal Housing Administration)
These brothers will be the pioneers of innovation by creating new techniques in home construction (cookie cutter houses)?
Levitt (Levitt town)
What is the name given to the abandonment of the inner cities by the Anglo population? What was the consequence to the inner city?
"White Flight"; The tax base left which meant less money and run down schools for the poor.
What is the difference between Dejure and Defacto segregation?
Dejure = by law. Defacto = by tradition
What boom took place between 1945 - 1962?
Baby boom (50 million babies by the end of the 1950s)
What is the major problem we are facing now because of this baby?
Strains on the Social Security system. Not enough worker bees!
What will be the famous statement on Harry S. Truman's desk addressing that he is responsible for all that happens in the US?
"The buck stops here"
What was discussed at the Yalta conference between the BIG Three?
The unconditional surrender of Germany, The dividing up of Germany, The proposed free elections in occupied territory (which Stalin will not allow to happen).
What will be the difference between Truman's view and FDR's view of Stalin?
Truman didn't trust Stalin
What policy by F.D. Roosevelt will possibly allow the communists to take over China, Poland and other Eastern European nations?
Not standing up to Stalin and allowing him to take over Manchuria and to discontinue free elections in Eastern Europe
What was the name of the man responsible for bringing communism to China in 1949?
What will cause friction between the United States and the Soviet Union between 1918 - 1990?
Brush Fire War (support for the Whites in the Bolsheviks), Didn't recognize the USSR until sixteen years after its creation, 1st and 2nd Red Scare, Leaving out the Soviets from the atomic weapons race, Abruptly terminated vital led-lease aid to USSR in 1945 and denied Moscow's plea for a $6 billion reconstruction loan, Atomic Bomb, Hydrogen bomb, Korean War, Vietnam War.
In 1944 the Western Allies established the IMF to encourage world trade by regulating currency exchange rates. What dies the IMF stand for?
International Monetary Fund
What other organizations will be created at this meeting in New Hampshire in 1944?
World Bank to promote economic growth in war-ravaged areas.
This international organization will meet for the first time in San Francisco on April 25, 1945 (13 days after FDR's death).
What are the major differences between the UN and the League of Nations?
The US joined the UN and there was a Security Council created with 5 permanent members
Who are the five permanent members of the UN's Security Council?
US, GB, France, Russia, China
What country in 1948 will the United States recognize giving it legitimacy? Why did Truman support the creation of this country in 1948 (election year)?
Israel; Get the support of the American Jews
What was the major reason for the creation of this state?
What will happen to this country the day it is created?
It will be attacked by 5 Arab countries
These trial will be held during 1945-46 putting the Nazi war criminals on trial. What was the significance of this city?
Nuremberg, Germany; This was the city where Hitler created his racial segregation laws
Germany at the end of WWII was divided into how many zones? Who owned them?
Four; US, GB, France and Soviet Union
What two nations will struggle for power during the Cold War? What will be considered the first battle of the Cold War? Who's victorious?
United States and the Soviet Union; Berlin Blockade; US over the Soviet blockade of West Berlin
Which former British Prime Minister will be invited by President Truman to deliver a speech at Fulton College Missouri in 1948? What is the name of the speech? How did it get its name?
Winston Churchill; Iron Curtain Speech; discussed the Soviet Union taking over the many satellite countries in Eastern Europe.
How was the US victorious in the Berlin Airlift?
For nearly a year, aircraft flew in supplies to West Berlin
What will happen to Germany in 1949? Nov. 9, 1989?
They will be divided into East and West Germany (the wall is NOT built until 1961). Reunited
What is the main principle of the Truman Doctrine?
The containment of communism to countries where it already existed by 1947.
Where will the Truman Doctrine be used first? How will it be used?
Greece and Turkey; with $400 million to bolster these two countries (Dollar Diplomacy)
What was the name given to the reconstruction plan for the war-torn European continent (Western Europe)?
How much aid was sent to Europe?
What new Cabinet position will be created by the National Security Act in 1947?
Secretary of Defense
This new building will house the newly created department?
This governmental agency was also created by the National Security Act to advise the president on security matters and the Central Intelligence Agency to coordinate the government's foreign fact-gathering—didn't work too well to prevent 911!!!
National Security Council
What Western European international organization will the United States join on April 4, 1949 which will support an attack on any member of the twelve-nation organization is an attack on all?
What will be the Soviet's response to this Western European international organization?
When did the Soviet's explode their first Atomic weapon?
Which couple was responsible for giving the Soviet the secrets to the atomic bomb?
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
These type of oaths were forced upon many American during the 1950s?
Which House of Congress was responsible for the HUAC hearings on anti-communism?
House of Representatives
It will be this Senator from the State of Wisconsin who will be at the forefront of the 2nd Red Scare in American History?
Joseph McCarthy (McCarthyism)
This future Vice President and President will be part of the 2nd Red Scare in the 1950s.
What charges will Joseph McCarthy make which will lead to his downfall?
That the State department and army are loaded with communists—there were some.
Harry Truman unexpectedly integrated the US Armed Forces in 1948. Why was this an unexpected move? What could have been behind this move?
Because Truman was from Missouri and had never really supported integration; He might have made this move to garner the African-American vote because in most polls he was trailing Thomas Dewey.
Who will Harry S. Truman defeat in the 1948 election in an upset?
Who were the "Dixiecrats"?
They were a third party in the 1948 presidential election which will run Strom Thurmond for President
What were the only successes of Harry Truman's Fair Deal programs?
Raising the minimum wage, providing for public housing in the Housing Act of 1949, and extending old-age insurance.
Which war will the United States fight desegregated because of Harry Truman's executive order?
How did the Korean War get started?
The North flooded over the 38th Parallel and the US will ask the United Nations to help in their fight.
Why was NSC-68 (National Security Council memorandum) passed in 1950?
It was to help quadruple the spending of the defense department to help with the Korean War
Which popular General will be asked to help end the Korean War?
What will that General ask for which will lead to his firing by President Truman?
The bombing of China with nuclear weapons
What will be the outcome of the Korean War?
Korea will remain divided along the 38th parallel and is still at war today.
What famous statement will the General make before Congress concerning old soldiers?
"Old soldiers never die, they just fade away"
How many US soldiers died in the three year Korean War?
Officially, the United States was simply participating in a _______________ with the United Nation in Korea.