Military commander of the American Revolution. He was the first elected president of the United States (1789-1799).
British General who attacked New York with 35,000 men and attacked Philadelphia when he should have been going to help Burgoyne up the Hudson River during the Battle of Bunker Hill.
Quaker-born member of Washington's General staff who lost the Battle of Washington Heights, but later led the American forces to victory in the South in 1781.
American General who was labeled a traitor when he assisted the British in a failed attempt to take the American fort at West Point.
British general in the American Revolution who captured Fort Ticonderoga but lost the battle of Saratoga in 1777.
A British general, he lost to Nathaniel Green in one campaign. He was humiliated by his defeat in the colonies. He finally lost at the Battle of Yorktown, commonly known as the end of the war, in 1781.
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809), wrote "Common Sense"
Richard Henry Lee
A member of the Philadelphia Congress during the late 1770's. On June 7, 1776 he declared, "These United colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states." This resolution was the start of the Declaration of Independence and end to British relations.
The famous general during the Saratoga campaign for the colonists. He was an ex British general who was one of the most controversial fighters when he almost took Washington's place.
John Paul Jones
American naval commander in the American Revolution (1747-1792) said " I have not yet begun to fight."
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who joined General Washington's staff and became a general in the Continental Army.
A leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies, "Give me liberty or give me death".
Comte de Rochambeau
Commanded a powerful French army of six thousand troops in the summer of 1780 and arrived in Newport, Rhode Island. They were planning a Franco - American attack on New York.
American delegate who signed Treaty of Paris; New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated with Britain and Spain on behalf of the Confederation; he later became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court and negotiated the Jay Treaty
A Vermont blacksmith. Led the Green Mountain Boys in a surprise attack on Fort Ticonderoga. Won the Fort, and a valuable supply of cannons and gun powder, and control of a key route into Canada.
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.
English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances.
professional soldiers who fight for anyone who will pay them.
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
a system in the colonial era by which privately-owned and operated ships were used to raid enemy shipping
Second Continental Congress
Convened in May 1775, they opposed the drastic move toward complete independence from Britain. In an effort to reach a reconciliation, they offered peace under the conditions that there be a cease-fire in Boston, that the Coercive Acts be repealed, and that negotiations begin immediately. King George III rejected the petition.
1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Declaration of Independence
Drafted in 1776 by T. Jefferson declaring America's separation from Great Britain (3 parts-New theory of government, reasons for separation, formal declaration of war and independence)
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
Colonists who disagreed with the move for independence and did not support the Revolution.
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
Conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster
Treaty of Paris of 1783
A peace agreement that officially ended the Revolutionary War and established British recognition of the independence of the United States.
(June 17, 1775) Site of a battle early in the Revolutionary War. This battle contested control of two hills (Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill) overlooking Boston Harbor. The British captured the hills after the Americans ran-out of ammunition. "Don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes!" Battle implied that Americans could fight the British if they had sufficient supplies.
Battle of Saratoga
American victory over British troops in 1777 that was a turning point in the American Revolution.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
the movement in which it was thought that the Catholic church needed to be revived; leaders included Martin Luther, John Calvin, and King Henry VIII
German monk who said that the Bible alone was the source of God's word; started Protestant Reformation; nailed his 95 Theses to the door of the Catholic church
Protestant leader from Geneva who created the dominant religion of American settlers; wrote his theories in Institutes of the Christian Religion
Institutes of the Christian Religion
written in 1536 by John Calvin; proposed predestination ("elect" souls were destined for heaven)
a belief in Calvinism which states that the "elect" souls were destined for heaven, while others were destined for hell
those destined for heaven; in accordance with Calvinism
sect of Puritanism created by John Calvin; dominant religion of American settlers; belief in predestination
sect of Puritanism that did not want the "saints" to go to church with the "damned" (as was the case with the Church of England); broke away from the Church of England
boat (headed by Captain Myles Standish) which carried the English Separatists from Holland to America (Plymouth Bay)
Separatists who left England for Holland in 1608 were worried that this was affecting their children
document signed by members on the Mayflower which agreed to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon (one of the first forms of self-government in America)
Christian denomination that broke away from the Catholic church during the Protestant Reformation; wanted to revive Catholic church
Church of England
created by King Henry VIII when he broke ties with the Roman Catholic Church during the Protestant Reformation
where the pilgrims aboard the Mayflower landed
English Separatists who left Holland for America and landed in Plymouth Bay
elected governor of Plymouth; feared non-Puritan settlers
another name for the Massachusetts Bay Colony because of religious drive
Massachusetts Bay Colony
settled in 1629 by non-Separatist Puritans
first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony; helped start economy
"city upon a hill"
what John Winthrop called Massachusetts Bay Colony because he thought it would serve as a religious model for mankind
the only people who could vote in the Massachusetts Bay Colony; adult, Puritan males
those who were clearly part of the "elect"; alone were eligible for church membership (therefore, the right to vote)
clergyman in Massachusetts Bay Colony; defended government's duty to enforce religious rules
wanted a clean break with the Church of England and thought the Massachusetts Bay Colony was unfair to Indians and said government shouldn't regulate religious behavior; banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1635; arrived in Rhode Island in 1636 and built a Baptist church; made complete freedom of religion and sheltered Jews, Catholics, and Quakers
woman in Massachusetts Bay Colony who preached idea of antinomianism; 1638, banished and forced to walk to and settle in Rhode Island
the belief that holy life was no true sign of salvation and the saved didn't have to follow laws of God or man; preached by Anne Hutchinson
the representative assembly of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Wampanoag Indian (in Plymouth Bay) who knew English from previously being captured by an Englishman; he helped keep peaceful relations between the English and the Wampanoag for the time being
Reverend Thomas Hooker
leader of Boston Puritans, who swept in and took control of the Connecticut River Valley
1639, constitution of Connecticut in which the regime was democratically controlled by citizens
chief of Plymouth area Wampanoag; signed treaty with Plymouth Pilgrims in 1621 and helped them celebrate first Thanksgiving
King Phillip (Metacom)
son of Massasoit; forged inter-tribal alliance and assaulted frontier settlements (pushed settlers back to Boston); this slowed English westward march in New England and drastically reduced threat of Indians
New England Confederation
inter-colonial alliance formed in 1643 between Bay Colony, Plymouth, New Haven, and scattered Connecticut valley settlements; purpose was to provide defense against Indians, French, and Dutch; each colony had two votes; first united representative government in America
Dominion of New England
1686, created by crown (included NY and East and West Jersey) for protection against Indians and to promote English Navigation Laws; inter-colonial alliance imposed by England
English laws that ended legal trade between colonies and non-English countries; resulted in resentment and smuggling
Sir Edmund Andros
English-placed leader of the Dominion of New England; despised for affiliation with Chruch of England and for heavy restrictions (taxation without representation); sent back to England by Boston mob
took place in England in 1688-1689; bloodlessly replaced Catholic James II with Protestant Dutch William II and English May (daughter of James II); inspired colonists to the point that a Boston mob sent Andros back to England
William and Mary
Protestant Dutch King and English Queen (daughter of James II) who replaced Catholic James II as monarchs of England during the Glorious Revolution
new monarchs (William and Mary) relaxed grip on colonial trade; colonies had to rely on themselves and got a taste of independence
Dutch-hired English explorer who ventured into Delaware and NY bay and Hudson River in 1609
Dutch West India Company
company in Caribbean that raided and traded; also in Africa and in sugar industry in Brazil; established colony in New Netherland (Hudson River) for fur; also bought Manhattan from Indians
one Dutch directors-general in New Netherland (NY) who fought off Swedes and surrendered to English
Quakers (Religious Society of Friends)
religious group that arose in England in the mid 1600s who were politically and religiously offensive to officials
fled to New World for religious freedom (since he was a Quaker), liberal government, and money; secured grant of Pennsylvania in 1681
reactionary Puritan Archbishop who was persecuted in 1629 when Parliament was dismissed by Charles I; lead Puritans to America, fearing for their faith
Swedish king who carried the torch for Protestantism during the Thirty Years' War of 1618-1648; this motivated the Swedes to enter the colonial game in America, particularly in New York
an authorization to sell a company's goods or services in a particular place
a spiritual enlightenment causing a person to lead a new life
doctrine of a calling
Puritan belief that they are responsible to do God's work on earth
enter into a formal agreement; promise
laws aimed at making sure pleasures stayed simple by repressing certain human instincts
belief that violence and war of any type are unjustifiable and disputes should be setted by peaceful means; part of Quaker belief system, esp. in regards to war
of the 70,000 who emigrated from England in 1630-1642, 20,000 went to New England while 48,000 went to the West Indies
part of Puritanism in the Bay Colony; involved serious commitment to work and to engagement in worldly pursuits
American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated the Great Awakening, a period of renewed interest in religion in America; famous speech "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity. He was also the author of Poor Richard's Almanac.
Masterful orator, rekindled the religiousness of the colonies during the Great Awakening. He was a leader of the "new lights"
John Peter Zenger
A newspaper printer from New York, was arrested and tried for seditious libel for attacking the royal governor. He was acquitted with the help of his lawyer, Andrew Hamilton. This was a huge step for the freedom of the press.
A slave girl from Boston, became a distinguished poet and was brought to England, where she published a book of her verses
An American painter who fled to England to avoid the American Revolution, as he was regarded as a Loyalist.
An American painter famous for his portraits of George Washington who dabbled in a variety of other areas, such as taxonomy and dentistry.
A group of Scots-Irish from the outskirts of Philadelphia, protested the Quakers' leniency toward the Indians. Their actions sparked the Regulator Movement in North Carolina
A period of huge religious revival throughout the colonies, sparked by a few strong religious speakers, called the "new lights."
A movement in North Carolina where dissenters, mostly Scots-Irish, believed that tax money was being dealt unfairly
Conservative clergymen who were against the emotional approach of the Great Awakening
Clergymen who defended the Great Awakening for reinvigorating American religion
The crime of openly criticizing a public official
A trade between America, the West Indies, and Africa, which some colonists took advantage of after the fall of the Royal African Company, and yielded great profits to its merchants.
An act intended to end American trade with the French West Indies passed by Britain, which was largely overridden by smuggling and bribery.
examples of established churches
Churches funded by taxes, such as the Anglican and Congregational churches
Houses designated to aid the widows and orphans of Philadelphia and New York
The most powerful members of a society
Limited in outlook to ones own small corner of the world
Poor Richard's Almanac
A bestselling book written by Benjamin Franklin that was a compilation of many different sayings
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
One of Jonathan Edwards' most famous sermons, which warned listeners of Hell
A church founded by Roger Williams, which was largely based on Calvinism
A group of Protestants (within the Church of England) that wanted to establish a church who would be led by the English monarchy while maintaining their Catholic traditions without the Pope.
Colonies controlled by the British king through governors appointed by him and through the king's veto power over colonial laws.
Colonies under authority of individuals granted charters of ownership by the king.
The oldest college in America, which reflected Puritan commitment to an educated ministry
William and Mary
Public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States; founded in 1693- Anglican
The third institution of higher learning in the United States was founded in 1701 - founded by Congregationalists
French Protestant dissenters, the Huguenots were granted limited toleration under the Edict of Nantes; after King Louis XIV outlawed Protestantism in 1685, many Huguenots fled elsewhere, including to British North America
Battle of Québec
British victory in Montreal 1759-60. The last time the French flag flew in Canada.
Coureurs de bois
Translated as "runners of the woods," they were unregulated French fur-trappers.
French residents of eastern Canada many of whom were uprooted by the British in 1755 and scattered as far south as Louisiana, where their descendants became known as "Cajuns"
Ottawa Chief who united Indian tribes and French trappers who had stayed in the frontier against the British - killing up to two-thousand British colonists.
French fur-trappers, more regulated than the "coureurs de bois."
French and Indian War (Seven Years' War)
(1754-1763) Nine-year war between the British and the French in North America; it resulted in the expulsion of the French from the North American mainland.
King William's War
(1689-1697) First conflict between French settlers and British (American) colonists.
Queen Anne's War
(1702-1713) Second in a series of conflicts between the French settlers and British (American) colonists.
Albany Plan of Union
Intercolonial congress summoned by the British government to foster greater colonial unity and assure Iroquois support in the escalating war against the French.
long reigning French monarch who took a deep interest in overseas colonization, sending French explorers throughout the New World who established outposts in present-day Canada and Louisiana; he brought France to global superiority and Louisiana was named after him.
Samuel de Champlain
"Father of New France" - Led the Huron Indians in a battle against their enemies (and British allies), the Iroquois.
British major-general in America during the French & Indian War who blundered through the forest, being beaten and killed by a small French and Indian force.
British "Organizer of Victory" decided to focus British resources on Canada and the Ohio River Valley rather than the West Indies.
Young British commander who was appointed by William Pitt to command in the Battle of Québec; although fatally wounded, his skillful strategies resulted in British victory
Ottawa chief who led an uprising trying to drive the British out of the Ohio Country.
France's colonies in North America. Occupied present-day Eastern Canada, the American Midwest, and the Mississippi River Valley.
Animal whose fur which was in high demand in Europe.
Robert de la Salle
Frenchman who explored the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Valley.
Treaty of Utrecht
1713 treaty which gave Britain French land in the Americas.
British member of Parliament who came up with a plan to create Georgia, partly as a place to send British prisoners.
French seaport town in on Cape Breton island, taken by the British during the French and Indian War.
French fort at the forks of the Ohio River in what is now downtown Pittsburgh. The French captured this fort near the end of the war and named it Fort Pitt.
British colonial commander tasked with removing the French from the Ohio River Valley.
Fort in Pennsylvania surrendered by George Washington at the beginning of the French and Indian War.
Colonial leader who pushed for the colonies to "join or die!" in fighting against the French.
The Great Displacement
The forced eviction of French Acadians by the British during the French and Indian War.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Treaty ending the Seven Years' War. Granted a majority of land in the Americas to the British.
Proclamation of 1763
British proclamation preventing American colonists from moving west into the American frontier. Passed after Pontiac's Uprising. Angered colonists.
American frontiersman who first explored west of the Cumberland Gap and the Appalachian Mountains into what is now Kentucky.
Political theory of representative government. Strong emphasis on Liberty
people who feared the threat to liberty posed by the growing power of the monarchy
belief in the benefits of profitable trading; commercialism.
law passed by the British Parliament setting taxes on molasses and sugar imported by the colonies
an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers "NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION"
juryless courts in British colonies that held jurisdiction over maritime activities
Stamp Act Congress
held in New York, agreed to not import British goods until Stamp Act was repealed
Boycotts against British goods, adopted in response to the stamp act and later the Townshed and intolerable acts
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
Patriotic Groups that played key role in Stamp Act protest
Act that affirmed the British Parliament the right to rule over the colonies
1767 - series of taxes on paint, glass, lead, paper and tea that the colonists boycotted
an incident in which British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists, killing five people and injuring 6
Commities of Correspondence
Local committees established in Massachusetts and later in each of the 13 colonies to maintain colonial opposition to the British policies through letters
Boston Tea Party
a 1773 protest in which colonists dressed as Indians dumped 342 crates of British tea into Boston harbor
a series of laws enacted by Parliament to punish colonists for Boston Tea Party (1774)
Canceled all colonial claims to western lands and made Catholicism the official religion of Quebec.
First continental Congress
Response to the "Intolerable Acts," tried to ask Great Britain to stop (without conflict)
Non-importation agreement crafted during the First Continental Congress calling for complete boycott of British goods
Lexington and Concord
First battle of the Revolutionary war faught outside Boston the colonial militia successively defended and forced British to retreat to Boston
Washington's troops spent a harsh winter here after losing Philadelphia to the British (1777-1778)
Women and children who followed the Continental Army during the American Revolution providing vital services such as cooking and sewing in return for rations
American revolutionary patriot who was president of the Continental Congress
British minister who raised a storm of protest by passing the Stamp Act
Replaced Grenville as finance minister. Created the Townshed Acts of 1776
A free black man who was the first person killed in the Revolution at the Boston Massacre.
Became king of England in 1727, the 13th colony (Georgia) was named after him
British Prime Minister under George III; persuaded Parliament to repeal Townshend Act
American Revolutionary leader and patriot
British governor of Massachusetts whose stubborn policies helped provoke the Boston Tea Party
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution (1757-1834)
Baron Von Steuben
Prussian soldier who helped train American forces at Valley Forge in the American Revolutionary War.
British royal governor who encouraged runaway slaves to join his army.
Virginian governor who disliked wretched bachelors (poor, endebted, discontented, and armed); disliked by wretched bachelors for friendly relations with Indians
twenty-nine-year-old planter who led a 1676 rebellion of frontiersmen (wretched bachelors) against Berkeley's friendly relations with Indians; in Virginia; died suddenly of disease
a devout Muslim brought to Maryland as a slave, he eventually fought his freedom and settled in Georgetown
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
seventeenth-century English witch-hunter who urged that suspected witches be bound hand and foot and tossed in a pond (innocent would sink and drown, guilty would float)
person who agreed to work for a colonial employer for a specified time in exchange for passage to america.
early 18th century laws limited the rights of Blacks, gave almost absolute authority to white masters, color was the only factor in determining if someone subject to slave codes
system employed in Virginia and Maryland to encourage the importation of servant workers; whoever paid the passage of a laborer received the right to acquire fifty acres of land
a new form of sermon in the Puritan churches in the mid-seventeenth century; preachers scolded parishioners for their waning piety
the transatlantic sea voyage that brought slaves to the New World; the long and hazardous "middle" segment of a journey that began with a forced march to the African coast and ended with a treak into the American interior
necessities given to indentured servants once they were freed; included a few barrels of corn, a suit of clothes, and perhaps a small parcel of land
the legal lynching in 1692 of twenty individuals, ninteen of whom were hanged and one of whom was pressed to death; two dogs were also hanged; in Salem, Massachusetts; represented the widening social stratification of New England and the fear of many religious traditionalists that the Puritan heritage was being eclipsed by Yankee commercialism
was often necessary for New England colonists. Unlike the rich and fertile soil of Virginia, New England had poor soil as well as a harsh winter and had to rely on improvisation and other means for economic success.
more prevalent in New England than Chesapeake region because of lack of diseases, immigration as a family, longevity, and high birth rate
testimonials by individuals that they had received God's grace and therefore deserved to be admitted to the church as members of the elect
1676 Virginian rebellion of frontiersmen (wretched bachelors) sparked by governor Berkeley's refusal to retaliate for a series of brutal Indian attacks on frontier settlements; killed Indians, chased Berkeley from Jamestown, and set fire to Jamestown; plundering and pilfering; crushed by Berkeley with cruelty of haging over twenty rebels; rebellion ignited resentments of landless former servants and pitted the frontiersmen against the gentry of the plantations; caused gentry to seek out African slaves
an ill-starred and bloody insurgence that rocked NYC from 1689 to 1691; fueled by animosity between lordly landholders and aspiring merchants
1662, arrangement in Puritan churches which modified the covenant to admit to baptism the unconverted children of existing members; weakened the distinction between the elect and others; led to widening of church membership; afterwords, women became majority in Puritan churches
black population brought from Africa to American colonies as slaves
New England Primer
widely used New England schoolbook that taught lessons of social duty and Christian faith, as well as reading and writing
First college in New World. Established by Puritans to train ministers.