American Pageant Chapters 3-8

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1

George Washington

Military commander of the American Revolution. He was the first elected president of the United States (1789-1799).

2

William Howe

British General who attacked New York with 35,000 men and attacked Philadelphia when he should have been going to help Burgoyne up the Hudson River during the Battle of Bunker Hill.

3

Nathanael Green

Quaker-born member of Washington's General staff who lost the Battle of Washington Heights, but later led the American forces to victory in the South in 1781.

4

Benedict Arnold

American General who was labeled a traitor when he assisted the British in a failed attempt to take the American fort at West Point.

5

John Burgoyne

British general in the American Revolution who captured Fort Ticonderoga but lost the battle of Saratoga in 1777.

6

Charles Cornwallis

A British general, he lost to Nathaniel Green in one campaign. He was humiliated by his defeat in the colonies. He finally lost at the Battle of Yorktown, commonly known as the end of the war, in 1781.

7

Thomas Paine

American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809), wrote "Common Sense"

8

Richard Henry Lee

A member of the Philadelphia Congress during the late 1770's. On June 7, 1776 he declared, "These United colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states." This resolution was the start of the Declaration of Independence and end to British relations.

9

Horatio Gates

The famous general during the Saratoga campaign for the colonists. He was an ex British general who was one of the most controversial fighters when he almost took Washington's place.

10

John Paul Jones

American naval commander in the American Revolution (1747-1792) said " I have not yet begun to fight."

11

Thomas Jefferson

He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.

12

Marquis de Lafayette

French soldier who joined General Washington's staff and became a general in the Continental Army.

13

Patrick Henry

A leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies, "Give me liberty or give me death".

14

Comte de Rochambeau

Commanded a powerful French army of six thousand troops in the summer of 1780 and arrived in Newport, Rhode Island. They were planning a Franco - American attack on New York.

15

John Jay

American delegate who signed Treaty of Paris; New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated with Britain and Spain on behalf of the Confederation; he later became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court and negotiated the Jay Treaty

16

Ethan Allen

A Vermont blacksmith. Led the Green Mountain Boys in a surprise attack on Fort Ticonderoga. Won the Fort, and a valuable supply of cannons and gun powder, and control of a key route into Canada.

17

Abigail Adams

Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.

18

George III

English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances.

19

mercenaries

professional soldiers who fight for anyone who will pay them.

20

natural rights

the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property

21

privateering

a system in the colonial era by which privately-owned and operated ships were used to raid enemy shipping

22

Second Continental Congress

Convened in May 1775, they opposed the drastic move toward complete independence from Britain. In an effort to reach a reconciliation, they offered peace under the conditions that there be a cease-fire in Boston, that the Coercive Acts be repealed, and that negotiations begin immediately. King George III rejected the petition.

23

Common Sense

1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation

24

Declaration of Independence

Drafted in 1776 by T. Jefferson declaring America's separation from Great Britain (3 parts-New theory of government, reasons for separation, formal declaration of war and independence)

25

Loyalists

American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence

26

Tories

Colonists who disagreed with the move for independence and did not support the Revolution.

27

Patriots

American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won

28

Whigs

Conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster

29

Treaty of Paris of 1783

A peace agreement that officially ended the Revolutionary War and established British recognition of the independence of the United States.

30

Bunker Hill

(June 17, 1775) Site of a battle early in the Revolutionary War. This battle contested control of two hills (Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill) overlooking Boston Harbor. The British captured the hills after the Americans ran-out of ammunition. "Don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes!" Battle implied that Americans could fight the British if they had sufficient supplies.

31

Battle of Saratoga

American victory over British troops in 1777 that was a turning point in the American Revolution.

32

Battle of Yorktown

Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.

33

Protestant Reformation

the movement in which it was thought that the Catholic church needed to be revived; leaders included Martin Luther, John Calvin, and King Henry VIII

34

Martin Luther

German monk who said that the Bible alone was the source of God's word; started Protestant Reformation; nailed his 95 Theses to the door of the Catholic church

35

John Calvin

Protestant leader from Geneva who created the dominant religion of American settlers; wrote his theories in Institutes of the Christian Religion

36

Institutes of the Christian Religion

written in 1536 by John Calvin; proposed predestination ("elect" souls were destined for heaven)

37

predestination

a belief in Calvinism which states that the "elect" souls were destined for heaven, while others were destined for hell

38

the "elect"

those destined for heaven; in accordance with Calvinism

39

Calvinism

sect of Puritanism created by John Calvin; dominant religion of American settlers; belief in predestination

40

Separatists

sect of Puritanism that did not want the "saints" to go to church with the "damned" (as was the case with the Church of England); broke away from the Church of England

41

Mayflower

boat (headed by Captain Myles Standish) which carried the English Separatists from Holland to America (Plymouth Bay)

42

Dutchification

Separatists who left England for Holland in 1608 were worried that this was affecting their children

43

Mayflower Compact

document signed by members on the Mayflower which agreed to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon (one of the first forms of self-government in America)

44

Puritans

Christian denomination that broke away from the Catholic church during the Protestant Reformation; wanted to revive Catholic church

45

Church of England

created by King Henry VIII when he broke ties with the Roman Catholic Church during the Protestant Reformation

46

Plymouth Bay

where the pilgrims aboard the Mayflower landed

47

Pilgrims

English Separatists who left Holland for America and landed in Plymouth Bay

48

William Bradford

elected governor of Plymouth; feared non-Puritan settlers

49

Bible Commonwealth

another name for the Massachusetts Bay Colony because of religious drive

50

Massachusetts Bay Colony

settled in 1629 by non-Separatist Puritans

51

John Winthrop

first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony; helped start economy

52

"city upon a hill"

what John Winthrop called Massachusetts Bay Colony because he thought it would serve as a religious model for mankind

53

freemen

the only people who could vote in the Massachusetts Bay Colony; adult, Puritan males

54

"visible saints"

those who were clearly part of the "elect"; alone were eligible for church membership (therefore, the right to vote)

55

John Cotton

clergyman in Massachusetts Bay Colony; defended government's duty to enforce religious rules

56

Roger Williams

wanted a clean break with the Church of England and thought the Massachusetts Bay Colony was unfair to Indians and said government shouldn't regulate religious behavior; banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1635; arrived in Rhode Island in 1636 and built a Baptist church; made complete freedom of religion and sheltered Jews, Catholics, and Quakers

57

Anne Hutchinson

woman in Massachusetts Bay Colony who preached idea of antinomianism; 1638, banished and forced to walk to and settle in Rhode Island

58

antinomianism

the belief that holy life was no true sign of salvation and the saved didn't have to follow laws of God or man; preached by Anne Hutchinson

59

General Court

the representative assembly of the Massachusetts Bay Colony

60

Squanto

Wampanoag Indian (in Plymouth Bay) who knew English from previously being captured by an Englishman; he helped keep peaceful relations between the English and the Wampanoag for the time being

61

Reverend Thomas Hooker

leader of Boston Puritans, who swept in and took control of the Connecticut River Valley

62

Fundamental Orders

1639, constitution of Connecticut in which the regime was democratically controlled by citizens

63

Massasoit

chief of Plymouth area Wampanoag; signed treaty with Plymouth Pilgrims in 1621 and helped them celebrate first Thanksgiving

64

King Phillip (Metacom)

son of Massasoit; forged inter-tribal alliance and assaulted frontier settlements (pushed settlers back to Boston); this slowed English westward march in New England and drastically reduced threat of Indians

65

New England Confederation

inter-colonial alliance formed in 1643 between Bay Colony, Plymouth, New Haven, and scattered Connecticut valley settlements; purpose was to provide defense against Indians, French, and Dutch; each colony had two votes; first united representative government in America

66

Dominion of New England

1686, created by crown (included NY and East and West Jersey) for protection against Indians and to promote English Navigation Laws; inter-colonial alliance imposed by England

67

Navigation Laws

English laws that ended legal trade between colonies and non-English countries; resulted in resentment and smuggling

68

Sir Edmund Andros

English-placed leader of the Dominion of New England; despised for affiliation with Chruch of England and for heavy restrictions (taxation without representation); sent back to England by Boston mob

69

Glorious Revolution

took place in England in 1688-1689; bloodlessly replaced Catholic James II with Protestant Dutch William II and English May (daughter of James II); inspired colonists to the point that a Boston mob sent Andros back to England

70

William and Mary

Protestant Dutch King and English Queen (daughter of James II) who replaced Catholic James II as monarchs of England during the Glorious Revolution

71

salutary neglect

new monarchs (William and Mary) relaxed grip on colonial trade; colonies had to rely on themselves and got a taste of independence

72

Henry Hudson

Dutch-hired English explorer who ventured into Delaware and NY bay and Hudson River in 1609

73

Dutch West India Company

company in Caribbean that raided and traded; also in Africa and in sugar industry in Brazil; established colony in New Netherland (Hudson River) for fur; also bought Manhattan from Indians

74

Peter Stuyvesant

one Dutch directors-general in New Netherland (NY) who fought off Swedes and surrendered to English

75

Quakers (Religious Society of Friends)

religious group that arose in England in the mid 1600s who were politically and religiously offensive to officials

76

William Penn

fled to New World for religious freedom (since he was a Quaker), liberal government, and money; secured grant of Pennsylvania in 1681

77

William Laud

reactionary Puritan Archbishop who was persecuted in 1629 when Parliament was dismissed by Charles I; lead Puritans to America, fearing for their faith

78

Gustavus Adolphus

Swedish king who carried the torch for Protestantism during the Thirty Years' War of 1618-1648; this motivated the Swedes to enter the colonial game in America, particularly in New York

79

franchise

an authorization to sell a company's goods or services in a particular place

80

conversion

a spiritual enlightenment causing a person to lead a new life

81

doctrine of a calling

Puritan belief that they are responsible to do God's work on earth

82

convenant

enter into a formal agreement; promise

83

"blue" laws

laws aimed at making sure pleasures stayed simple by repressing certain human instincts

84

pacifism

belief that violence and war of any type are unjustifiable and disputes should be setted by peaceful means; part of Quaker belief system, esp. in regards to war

85

Great Migration

of the 70,000 who emigrated from England in 1630-1642, 20,000 went to New England while 48,000 went to the West Indies

86

Protestant ethic

part of Puritanism in the Bay Colony; involved serious commitment to work and to engagement in worldly pursuits

87

Jonathan Edwards

American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated the Great Awakening, a period of renewed interest in religion in America; famous speech "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"

88

Benjamin Franklin

One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity. He was also the author of Poor Richard's Almanac.

89

George Whitefield

Masterful orator, rekindled the religiousness of the colonies during the Great Awakening. He was a leader of the "new lights"

90

John Peter Zenger

A newspaper printer from New York, was arrested and tried for seditious libel for attacking the royal governor. He was acquitted with the help of his lawyer, Andrew Hamilton. This was a huge step for the freedom of the press.

91

Phillis Wheatley

A slave girl from Boston, became a distinguished poet and was brought to England, where she published a book of her verses

92

John Copley

An American painter who fled to England to avoid the American Revolution, as he was regarded as a Loyalist.

93

Charles Peale

An American painter famous for his portraits of George Washington who dabbled in a variety of other areas, such as taxonomy and dentistry.

94

Paxton Boys

A group of Scots-Irish from the outskirts of Philadelphia, protested the Quakers' leniency toward the Indians. Their actions sparked the Regulator Movement in North Carolina

95

Great Awakening

A period of huge religious revival throughout the colonies, sparked by a few strong religious speakers, called the "new lights."

96

Regulator Movement

A movement in North Carolina where dissenters, mostly Scots-Irish, believed that tax money was being dealt unfairly

97

Old Lights

Conservative clergymen who were against the emotional approach of the Great Awakening

98

New Lights

Clergymen who defended the Great Awakening for reinvigorating American religion

99

seditious libel

The crime of openly criticizing a public official

100

Triangular Trade

A trade between America, the West Indies, and Africa, which some colonists took advantage of after the fall of the Royal African Company, and yielded great profits to its merchants.

101

Molasses Act

An act intended to end American trade with the French West Indies passed by Britain, which was largely overridden by smuggling and bribery.

102

examples of established churches

Churches funded by taxes, such as the Anglican and Congregational churches

103

almshouses

Houses designated to aid the widows and orphans of Philadelphia and New York

104

gentry

The most powerful members of a society

105

provincial

Limited in outlook to ones own small corner of the world

106

Poor Richard's Almanac

A bestselling book written by Benjamin Franklin that was a compilation of many different sayings

107

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

One of Jonathan Edwards' most famous sermons, which warned listeners of Hell

108

Baptists Church

A church founded by Roger Williams, which was largely based on Calvinism

109

Anglicans

A group of Protestants (within the Church of England) that wanted to establish a church who would be led by the English monarchy while maintaining their Catholic traditions without the Pope.

110

royal colonies

Colonies controlled by the British king through governors appointed by him and through the king's veto power over colonial laws.

111

proprietary colonies

Colonies under authority of individuals granted charters of ownership by the king.

112

Harvard

The oldest college in America, which reflected Puritan commitment to an educated ministry

113

William and Mary

Public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States; founded in 1693- Anglican

114

Yale University

The third institution of higher learning in the United States was founded in 1701 - founded by Congregationalists

115

Huguenots

French Protestant dissenters, the Huguenots were granted limited toleration under the Edict of Nantes; after King Louis XIV outlawed Protestantism in 1685, many Huguenots fled elsewhere, including to British North America

116

Battle of Québec

British victory in Montreal 1759-60. The last time the French flag flew in Canada.

117

Coureurs de bois

Translated as "runners of the woods," they were unregulated French fur-trappers.

118

Acadians

French residents of eastern Canada many of whom were uprooted by the British in 1755 and scattered as far south as Louisiana, where their descendants became known as "Cajuns"

119

Pontiac's uprising

Ottawa Chief who united Indian tribes and French trappers who had stayed in the frontier against the British - killing up to two-thousand British colonists.

120

Voyageurs

French fur-trappers, more regulated than the "coureurs de bois."

121

French and Indian War (Seven Years' War)

(1754-1763) Nine-year war between the British and the French in North America; it resulted in the expulsion of the French from the North American mainland.

122

King William's War

(1689-1697) First conflict between French settlers and British (American) colonists.

123

Queen Anne's War

(1702-1713) Second in a series of conflicts between the French settlers and British (American) colonists.

124

Albany Plan of Union

Intercolonial congress summoned by the British government to foster greater colonial unity and assure Iroquois support in the escalating war against the French.

125

Louis XIV

long reigning French monarch who took a deep interest in overseas colonization, sending French explorers throughout the New World who established outposts in present-day Canada and Louisiana; he brought France to global superiority and Louisiana was named after him.

126

Samuel de Champlain

"Father of New France" - Led the Huron Indians in a battle against their enemies (and British allies), the Iroquois.

127

Edward Braddock

British major-general in America during the French & Indian War who blundered through the forest, being beaten and killed by a small French and Indian force.

128

William Pitt

British "Organizer of Victory" decided to focus British resources on Canada and the Ohio River Valley rather than the West Indies.

129

James Wolfe

Young British commander who was appointed by William Pitt to command in the Battle of Québec; although fatally wounded, his skillful strategies resulted in British victory

130

Pontiac

Ottawa chief who led an uprising trying to drive the British out of the Ohio Country.

131

New France

France's colonies in North America. Occupied present-day Eastern Canada, the American Midwest, and the Mississippi River Valley.

132

Beaver

Animal whose fur which was in high demand in Europe.

133

Robert de la Salle

Frenchman who explored the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Valley.

134

Treaty of Utrecht

1713 treaty which gave Britain French land in the Americas.

135

James Oglethorpe

British member of Parliament who came up with a plan to create Georgia, partly as a place to send British prisoners.

136

Louisbourg

French seaport town in on Cape Breton island, taken by the British during the French and Indian War.

137

Fort Duquesne

French fort at the forks of the Ohio River in what is now downtown Pittsburgh. The French captured this fort near the end of the war and named it Fort Pitt.

138

George Washington

British colonial commander tasked with removing the French from the Ohio River Valley.

139

Fort Necessity

Fort in Pennsylvania surrendered by George Washington at the beginning of the French and Indian War.

140

Benjamin Franklin

Colonial leader who pushed for the colonies to "join or die!" in fighting against the French.

141

The Great Displacement

The forced eviction of French Acadians by the British during the French and Indian War.

142

Treaty of Paris 1763

Treaty ending the Seven Years' War. Granted a majority of land in the Americas to the British.

143

Proclamation of 1763

British proclamation preventing American colonists from moving west into the American frontier. Passed after Pontiac's Uprising. Angered colonists.

144

Daniel Boone

American frontiersman who first explored west of the Cumberland Gap and the Appalachian Mountains into what is now Kentucky.

145

Republicanism

Political theory of representative government. Strong emphasis on Liberty

146

Radical Whigs

people who feared the threat to liberty posed by the growing power of the monarchy

147

Mercantilism

belief in the benefits of profitable trading; commercialism.

148

Sugar Act

law passed by the British Parliament setting taxes on molasses and sugar imported by the colonies

149

Quartering Act

an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists

150

Stamp Act

1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers "NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION"

151

Admiralty Courts

juryless courts in British colonies that held jurisdiction over maritime activities

152

Stamp Act Congress

held in New York, agreed to not import British goods until Stamp Act was repealed

153

Non-importation Agreements

Boycotts against British goods, adopted in response to the stamp act and later the Townshed and intolerable acts

154

Sons and Daughters of Liberty

Patriotic Groups that played key role in Stamp Act protest

155

Declatory Act

Act that affirmed the British Parliament the right to rule over the colonies

156

Townshed Act

1767 - series of taxes on paint, glass, lead, paper and tea that the colonists boycotted

157

Boston Massacre

an incident in which British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists, killing five people and injuring 6

158

Commities of Correspondence

Local committees established in Massachusetts and later in each of the 13 colonies to maintain colonial opposition to the British policies through letters

159

Boston Tea Party

a 1773 protest in which colonists dressed as Indians dumped 342 crates of British tea into Boston harbor

160

Intolerable Acts

a series of laws enacted by Parliament to punish colonists for Boston Tea Party (1774)

161

Quebec Act

Canceled all colonial claims to western lands and made Catholicism the official religion of Quebec.

162

First continental Congress

Response to the "Intolerable Acts," tried to ask Great Britain to stop (without conflict)

163

The association

Non-importation agreement crafted during the First Continental Congress calling for complete boycott of British goods

164

Lexington and Concord

First battle of the Revolutionary war faught outside Boston the colonial militia successively defended and forced British to retreat to Boston

165

Valley Forge

Washington's troops spent a harsh winter here after losing Philadelphia to the British (1777-1778)

166

Camp Followers

Women and children who followed the Continental Army during the American Revolution providing vital services such as cooking and sewing in return for rations

167

John Hancock

American revolutionary patriot who was president of the Continental Congress

168

George Grenville

British minister who raised a storm of protest by passing the Stamp Act

169

Charles Townshed

Replaced Grenville as finance minister. Created the Townshed Acts of 1776

170

Crispus Attucks

A free black man who was the first person killed in the Revolution at the Boston Massacre.

171

George III

Became king of England in 1727, the 13th colony (Georgia) was named after him

172

Lord North

British Prime Minister under George III; persuaded Parliament to repeal Townshend Act

173

Samuel Adams

American Revolutionary leader and patriot

174

Thomas Hutchinson

British governor of Massachusetts whose stubborn policies helped provoke the Boston Tea Party

175

Marquis de Lafayette

French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution (1757-1834)

176

Baron Von Steuben

Prussian soldier who helped train American forces at Valley Forge in the American Revolutionary War.

177

Lord Dunmore

British royal governor who encouraged runaway slaves to join his army.

178

William Berkeley

Virginian governor who disliked wretched bachelors (poor, endebted, discontented, and armed); disliked by wretched bachelors for friendly relations with Indians

179

Nathaniel Bacon

twenty-nine-year-old planter who led a 1676 rebellion of frontiersmen (wretched bachelors) against Berkeley's friendly relations with Indians; in Virginia; died suddenly of disease

180

Yarrow Mamout

a devout Muslim brought to Maryland as a slave, he eventually fought his freedom and settled in Georgetown

181

William Bradford

A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.

182

Matthew Hopkins

seventeenth-century English witch-hunter who urged that suspected witches be bound hand and foot and tossed in a pond (innocent would sink and drown, guilty would float)

183

indentured servitude

person who agreed to work for a colonial employer for a specified time in exchange for passage to america.

184

Slave Codes

early 18th century laws limited the rights of Blacks, gave almost absolute authority to white masters, color was the only factor in determining if someone subject to slave codes

185

Headright System

system employed in Virginia and Maryland to encourage the importation of servant workers; whoever paid the passage of a laborer received the right to acquire fifty acres of land

186

Jeremiads

a new form of sermon in the Puritan churches in the mid-seventeenth century; preachers scolded parishioners for their waning piety

187

Middle Passage

the transatlantic sea voyage that brought slaves to the New World; the long and hazardous "middle" segment of a journey that began with a forced march to the African coast and ended with a treak into the American interior

188

Freedom Dues

necessities given to indentured servants once they were freed; included a few barrels of corn, a suit of clothes, and perhaps a small parcel of land

189

"witch hunting"

the legal lynching in 1692 of twenty individuals, ninteen of whom were hanged and one of whom was pressed to death; two dogs were also hanged; in Salem, Massachusetts; represented the widening social stratification of New England and the fear of many religious traditionalists that the Puritan heritage was being eclipsed by Yankee commercialism

190

Yankee Ingenuity

was often necessary for New England colonists. Unlike the rich and fertile soil of Virginia, New England had poor soil as well as a harsh winter and had to rely on improvisation and other means for economic success.

191

Family Stability

more prevalent in New England than Chesapeake region because of lack of diseases, immigration as a family, longevity, and high birth rate

192

Conversions

testimonials by individuals that they had received God's grace and therefore deserved to be admitted to the church as members of the elect

193

Bacon's Rebellion

1676 Virginian rebellion of frontiersmen (wretched bachelors) sparked by governor Berkeley's refusal to retaliate for a series of brutal Indian attacks on frontier settlements; killed Indians, chased Berkeley from Jamestown, and set fire to Jamestown; plundering and pilfering; crushed by Berkeley with cruelty of haging over twenty rebels; rebellion ignited resentments of landless former servants and pitted the frontiersmen against the gentry of the plantations; caused gentry to seek out African slaves

194

Leisler's Rebellion

an ill-starred and bloody insurgence that rocked NYC from 1689 to 1691; fueled by animosity between lordly landholders and aspiring merchants

195

Half-Way Covenant

1662, arrangement in Puritan churches which modified the covenant to admit to baptism the unconverted children of existing members; weakened the distinction between the elect and others; led to widening of church membership; afterwords, women became majority in Puritan churches

196

African American

black population brought from Africa to American colonies as slaves

197

New England Primer

widely used New England schoolbook that taught lessons of social duty and Christian faith, as well as reading and writing

198

Harvard College

First college in New World. Established by Puritans to train ministers.