War of 1812
(1812-1815): fought b/w US and Britain largely over issues of trade and impressment. Ended in relative draw, but showed US willingness to fight for beliefs. Earned respect from European nations. "2nd war for independence."
Battle of New Orleans
Battle won by US, Andrew Jackson. Decisive win for US in War of 1812.
Congress of Vienna
(1814-1815): Convention of major European powers redrew boundaries of continental Europe after defeat of Napoleonic France.
Treaty of Ghent
(1815): Ended War of 1812 in virtual draw, restoring prewar borders - failing to address any grievances that brought US into war.
(1814-1815): convention of Federalists from 5 New England states who opposed the War of 1812 and resented the strength of Southern and Western interests in Congress and in the White House.
(1817): Signed by Britain and US, established strict limits on naval armaments in the Great Lakes, first step in full demilitarization US-Canadian border, finalized 1870s.
Tariff of 1816
First protective tariff in US history, created to shield New England manufacturers from inflow of British goods after the War of 1812.
(1820s): Henry Clay's three pronged system to promote American industry. Easy loans, protective tariffs, transportation system.
The Era of Good Feelings
(1816-1824): Popular name for period of one-party, Republican, rule in Madison's presidency. Term obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery, and the national bank.
The Panic of 1819
Severe financial crisis caused primarily by Bank of US efforts to curb over-speculation on western lands. Affected the poorer classes most, especially in the West, sowing the seeds of Jacksonian Democracy.
Land Act of 1820
Fueled settlement of Northwest and Missouri territories by lowering public land price. Also prohibited purchase of federal acreage on credit, thereby eliminating one causes of Panic of 1819.
(1819): Failed proposal to prohibit the importation of slaves into Missouri territory and pave the way for gradual emancipation. Southerners opposed this, which they perceived as a threat to the sectional balance between the North and the South.
Widely used term for the institution of American Slavery in the South. Its use in the first half of the 19th century reflected a growing division in the North, where slavery was gradually abolished, and the South, where slavery became increasingly entrenched.
The Missouri Compromise
(1820): Allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state but kept the balance between North and South by carving free-soil Maine out of Massachusetts and prohibiting slavery from territories from Louisiana Purchase, north of 36.30.
McCulloch v. Maryland
(1819): Supreme Court case strengthened federal authority, upheld Bank of US constitutionality.. Established that state bank of Maryland had no power to tax US bank.
Idea of using the elastic clause as a way of interpreting the constitution
Cohens v. Virginia
Case that reinforced federal supremacy by establishing the right of the Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme courts in questions involving powers of the federal government.
Gibbons v. Ogden
(1824): suit over whether New York State could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters. The ruling reasserted that Congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce.
Fletcher v. Peck
(1810): Established firmer protection for private property and asserted the right of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws in conflict with the Constitution.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
(1819): Supreme Court case sustained Dartmouth U's original charter against changes proposed by New Hampshire state legislature, Protected corporations from domination by state govt.
(1818): Signed by Britain and US, pact allowed New England fishermen access to Newfoundland fisheries, established Northern border of Louisiana territory and provided for joint occupation of Oregon Country for 10 years.
Florida Purchase Territory (Adams-Onis Treaty)
(1819): Under agreement, Spain ceded Florida to US, which, in turn, abandoned claims to Texas.
Statement delivered by Pres James Monroe, warned European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas. The US largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who sought free access to Latin American markets.
(1824): fixed the line of 54.40' as the southernmost boundary of Russian holdings in North America
Oliver Hazard Perry
American naval officer whose decisive victory over a British fleet on Lake Erie during the War of 1812 reinvigorated American morale and paved the way for General William Henry Harrison's victory at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
Francis Scott Key
Author and lawyer who composed the "Star Spangled Banner", our national anthem, while observing the bombardment of Fort McHenry from the deck of a British ship where he was detained.
Revolutionary war soldier, statesman, and 5th president. As president, he supported protective tariffs, and a national bank, but maintained a Jeffersonian opposition to federally funded improvements. Though he sought to transcend partisanship, even undertaking a goodwill tour of the states in 1817, his presidency was rocked by partisan and sectional conflicts.
Supreme Court Chief Justice who expanded the power of both the Supreme Court and the National Government
Early American Writer. Wrote Rumplestilskin and Legend of Sleepy Hollow
James Fenimore Cooper
Early American Writer. Wrote the Deerslayer, and Last of the Mohicans
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism. Westerners also wanted war with Indian Tribes
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service. (also done by France)
Macon's Bill No. 2
While Madison was president, it opened trade with britain and france, said if either nation repealed its restrictions on neutral shipping the US would halt trade with the other, didn't work
Vice President to Thomas Jefferson for one term. Dueled with Alexander Hamilton, resulting in Hamilton's death. Known for his trial and acquittal on charges of treason.
Tenskwatawa (the Prophet)
A Shawnee Indian leader who with his borther (Tecumseh) brought together many tribes to go against the colonists. Killed by Harrison at Tippecanoe
Chief of the Shawnee who with his brother (the Prophet, Tenskwatawa) tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement. Killed by Harrison at Thames.
William Clark and Meriwether Lewis
American explorers who led an expedition through the Northern portions of the Louisiana Purchase
Senator from Kentucky. War hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, 34 years old
Ruler of France, sold Louisisana to the Americans after reciving it from the Spanish
explored the southern portion of the Louisiana Territory. He saw the Rocky Mountains. The Highest peak is named after him.
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Federalist. Presided over cases such as Marbury V. Madison; judicial review
3rd President; leader of Democratic-Republicans; created republicanism; 1st President to take office in Washington D.C.
named a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia; sued Madison when he learned that his commission was being shelved by Madison (Secretary of State)
4th President; Secretary of State; lead nation through War of 1812
Leader of ex-slaves in the rebellion in Haiti against French
Former Vice President and President. Ironically Known as "the Father of the American Navy." He split with Hamiltonian federalists over the issue of the war with France.
Judiciary Act of 1801
passed by Federalist congress; created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial positions
Orders in Council
British act that closed European ports under French control to foreign shipping, unless the vessels 1st stopped at a British port. Authorized impressment.
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution." It was a peaceful transfer of political power.
a nickname given to group of judicial branch officials that was appointed by John Adams the night before he left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts to have a long term federalist influence.
1807 - Named after the The American ship that refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the it.
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.
1803, the U.S. spends $15 million to buy a large amount of land from the west of the Mississippi from France; doubled the size of the United States
After the Embargo act was repealed, it allowed Americans to carry on trade with all nations except Britian and France.
It is the term used to describe the United States Navy's fleet of small gunboats, leading up to and during the War of 1812. Used with success against barbary pirates.
Looted US ships and indirectly declared war. Jefferson sent the navy to stop them. Mosquito fleet was used with much success here.
Shoshoni woman who helped Lewis and Clark in their expodition
William Henry Harrison
Governor of Indiana Territory who defeated Tecumseh and the Prophet (Tenskwatawa)
Battle of the Thames
Led by William Henry Harrison, Tecumseh is killed, Indian confederacy dream perished
War of 1812
America entered for freedom of the seas and against (British) Indian issues
Battle of Tippecanoe
Led by William Henry Harrison, the Prophet is killed. Harrison is celebrated as a hero.
Slave of Thomas Jefferson's who federalists said that he had children with.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
Andrew Jackson crushed the Creek Indians on March 27, 1814, effectively breaking the Indian rebellion and leaving the entire area east of the Mississippi open for safe settlement
Military leader in charge of crushing the creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.