American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated the Great Awakening, a period of renewed interest in religion in America; famous speech "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity. He was also the author of Poor Richard's Almanac.
Masterful orator, rekindled the religiousness of the colonies during the Great Awakening. He was a leader of the "new lights"
John Peter Zenger
A newspaper printer from New York, was arrested and tried for seditious libel for attacking the royal governor. He was acquitted with the help of his lawyer, Andrew Hamilton. This was a huge step for the freedom of the press.
A slave girl from Boston, became a distinguished poet and was brought to England, where she published a book of her verses
An American painter who fled to England to avoid the American Revolution, as he was regarded as a Loyalist.
An American painter famous for his portraits of George Washington who dabbled in a variety of other areas, such as taxonomy and dentistry.
A group of Scots-Irish from the outskirts of Philadelphia, protested the Quakers' leniency toward the Indians. Their actions sparked the Regulator Movement in North Carolina
A period of huge religious revival throughout the colonies, sparked by a few strong religious speakers, called the "new lights."
A movement in North Carolina where dissenters, mostly Scots-Irish, believed that tax money was being dealt unfairly
Conservative clergymen who were against the emotional approach of the Great Awakening
Clergymen who defended the Great Awakening for reinvigorating American religion
The crime of openly criticizing a public official
A trade between America, the West Indies, and Africa, which some colonists took advantage of after the fall of the Royal African Company, and yielded great profits to its merchants.
An act intended to end American trade with the French West Indies passed by Britain, which was largely overridden by smuggling and bribery.
examples of established churches
Churches funded by taxes, such as the Anglican and Congregational churches
Houses designated to aid the widows and orphans of Philadelphia and New York
The most powerful members of a society
Limited in outlook to ones own small corner of the world
Poor Richard's Almanac
A bestselling book written by Benjamin Franklin that was a compilation of many different sayings
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
One of Jonathan Edwards' most famous sermons, which warned listeners of Hell
A church founded by Roger Williams, which was largely based on Calvinism
A group of Protestants (within the Church of England) that wanted to establish a church who would be led by the English monarchy while maintaining their Catholic traditions without the Pope.
Colonies controlled by the British king through governors appointed by him and through the king's veto power over colonial laws.
Colonies under authority of individuals granted charters of ownership by the king.
The oldest college in America, which reflected Puritan commitment to an educated ministry
William and Mary
Public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States; founded in 1693- Anglican
The third institution of higher learning in the United States was founded in 1701 - founded by Congregationalists
French Protestant dissenters, the Huguenots were granted limited toleration under the Edict of Nantes; after King Louis XIV outlawed Protestantism in 1685, many Huguenots fled elsewhere, including to British North America
Battle of Québec
British victory in Montreal 1759-60. The last time the French flag flew in Canada.
Coureurs de bois
Translated as "runners of the woods," they were unregulated French fur-trappers.
French residents of eastern Canada many of whom were uprooted by the British in 1755 and scattered as far south as Louisiana, where their descendants became known as "Cajuns"
Ottawa Chief who united Indian tribes and French trappers who had stayed in the frontier against the British - killing up to two-thousand British colonists.
French fur-trappers, more regulated than the "coureurs de bois."
French and Indian War (Seven Years' War)
(1754-1763) Nine-year war between the British and the French in North America; it resulted in the expulsion of the French from the North American mainland.
King William's War
(1689-1697) First conflict between French settlers and British (American) colonists.
Queen Anne's War
(1702-1713) Second in a series of conflicts between the French settlers and British (American) colonists.
Albany Plan of Union
Intercolonial congress summoned by the British government to foster greater colonial unity and assure Iroquois support in the escalating war against the French.
long reigning French monarch who took a deep interest in overseas colonization, sending French explorers throughout the New World who established outposts in present-day Canada and Louisiana; he brought France to global superiority and Louisiana was named after him.
Samuel de Champlain
"Father of New France" - Led the Huron Indians in a battle against their enemies (and British allies), the Iroquois.
British major-general in America during the French & Indian War who blundered through the forest, being beaten and killed by a small French and Indian force.
British "Organizer of Victory" decided to focus British resources on Canada and the Ohio River Valley rather than the West Indies.
Young British commander who was appointed by William Pitt to command in the Battle of Québec; although fatally wounded, his skillful strategies resulted in British victory
Ottawa chief who led an uprising trying to drive the British out of the Ohio Country.
France's colonies in North America. Occupied present-day Eastern Canada, the American Midwest, and the Mississippi River Valley.
Animal whose fur which was in high demand in Europe.
Robert de la Salle
Frenchman who explored the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Valley.
Treaty of Utrecht
1713 treaty which gave Britain French land in the Americas.
British member of Parliament who came up with a plan to create Georgia, partly as a place to send British prisoners.
French seaport town in on Cape Breton island, taken by the British during the French and Indian War.
French fort at the forks of the Ohio River in what is now downtown Pittsburgh. The French captured this fort near the end of the war and named it Fort Pitt.
British colonial commander tasked with removing the French from the Ohio River Valley.
Fort in Pennsylvania surrendered by George Washington at the beginning of the French and Indian War.
Colonial leader who pushed for the colonies to "join or die!" in fighting against the French.
The Great Displacement
The forced eviction of French Acadians by the British during the French and Indian War.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Treaty ending the Seven Years' War. Granted a majority of land in the Americas to the British.
Proclamation of 1763
British proclamation preventing American colonists from moving west into the American frontier. Passed after Pontiac's Uprising. Angered colonists.
American frontiersman who first explored west of the Cumberland Gap and the Appalachian Mountains into what is now Kentucky.
Political theory of representative government. Strong emphasis on Liberty
people who feared the threat to liberty posed by the growing power of the monarchy
belief in the benefits of profitable trading; commercialism.
law passed by the British Parliament setting taxes on molasses and sugar imported by the colonies
an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers "NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION"
juryless courts in British colonies that held jurisdiction over maritime activities
Stamp Act Congress
held in New York, agreed to not import British goods until Stamp Act was repealed
Boycotts against British goods, adopted in response to the stamp act and later the Townshed and intolerable acts
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
Patriotic Groups that played key role in Stamp Act protest
Act that affirmed the British Parliament the right to rule over the colonies
1767 - series of taxes on paint, glass, lead, paper and tea that the colonists boycotted
an incident in which British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists, killing five people and injuring 6
Commities of Correspondence
Local committees established in Massachusetts and later in each of the 13 colonies to maintain colonial opposition to the British policies through letters
Boston Tea Party
a 1773 protest in which colonists dressed as Indians dumped 342 crates of British tea into Boston harbor
a series of laws enacted by Parliament to punish colonists for Boston Tea Party (1774)
Canceled all colonial claims to western lands and made Catholicism the official religion of Quebec.
First continental Congress
Response to the "Intolerable Acts," tried to ask Great Britain to stop (without conflict)
Non-importation agreement crafted during the First Continental Congress calling for complete boycott of British goods
Lexington and Concord
First battle of the Revolutionary war faught outside Boston the colonial militia successively defended and forced British to retreat to Boston
Washington's troops spent a harsh winter here after losing Philadelphia to the British (1777-1778)
Women and children who followed the Continental Army during the American Revolution providing vital services such as cooking and sewing in return for rations
American revolutionary patriot who was president of the Continental Congress
British minister who raised a storm of protest by passing the Stamp Act
Replaced Grenville as finance minister. Created the Townshed Acts of 1776
A free black man who was the first person killed in the Revolution at the Boston Massacre.
Became king of England in 1727, the 13th colony (Georgia) was named after him
British Prime Minister under George III; persuaded Parliament to repeal Townshend Act
American Revolutionary leader and patriot
British governor of Massachusetts whose stubborn policies helped provoke the Boston Tea Party
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution (1757-1834)
Baron Von Steuben
Prussian soldier who helped train American forces at Valley Forge in the American Revolutionary War.
British royal governor who encouraged runaway slaves to join his army.