American Pageant Chapters 5, 6, 7

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1

Jonathan Edwards

American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated the Great Awakening, a period of renewed interest in religion in America; famous speech "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"

2

Benjamin Franklin

One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity. He was also the author of Poor Richard's Almanac.

3

George Whitefield

Masterful orator, rekindled the religiousness of the colonies during the Great Awakening. He was a leader of the "new lights"

4

John Peter Zenger

A newspaper printer from New York, was arrested and tried for seditious libel for attacking the royal governor. He was acquitted with the help of his lawyer, Andrew Hamilton. This was a huge step for the freedom of the press.

5

Phillis Wheatley

A slave girl from Boston, became a distinguished poet and was brought to England, where she published a book of her verses

6

John Copley

An American painter who fled to England to avoid the American Revolution, as he was regarded as a Loyalist.

7

Charles Peale

An American painter famous for his portraits of George Washington who dabbled in a variety of other areas, such as taxonomy and dentistry.

8

Paxton Boys

A group of Scots-Irish from the outskirts of Philadelphia, protested the Quakers' leniency toward the Indians. Their actions sparked the Regulator Movement in North Carolina

9

Great Awakening

A period of huge religious revival throughout the colonies, sparked by a few strong religious speakers, called the "new lights."

10

Regulator Movement

A movement in North Carolina where dissenters, mostly Scots-Irish, believed that tax money was being dealt unfairly

11

Old Lights

Conservative clergymen who were against the emotional approach of the Great Awakening

12

New Lights

Clergymen who defended the Great Awakening for reinvigorating American religion

13

seditious libel

The crime of openly criticizing a public official

14

Triangular Trade

A trade between America, the West Indies, and Africa, which some colonists took advantage of after the fall of the Royal African Company, and yielded great profits to its merchants.

15

Molasses Act

An act intended to end American trade with the French West Indies passed by Britain, which was largely overridden by smuggling and bribery.

16

examples of established churches

Churches funded by taxes, such as the Anglican and Congregational churches

17

almshouses

Houses designated to aid the widows and orphans of Philadelphia and New York

18

gentry

The most powerful members of a society

19

provincial

Limited in outlook to ones own small corner of the world

20

Poor Richard's Almanac

A bestselling book written by Benjamin Franklin that was a compilation of many different sayings

21

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

One of Jonathan Edwards' most famous sermons, which warned listeners of Hell

22

Baptists Church

A church founded by Roger Williams, which was largely based on Calvinism

23

Anglicans

A group of Protestants (within the Church of England) that wanted to establish a church who would be led by the English monarchy while maintaining their Catholic traditions without the Pope.

24

royal colonies

Colonies controlled by the British king through governors appointed by him and through the king's veto power over colonial laws.

25

proprietary colonies

Colonies under authority of individuals granted charters of ownership by the king.

26

Harvard

The oldest college in America, which reflected Puritan commitment to an educated ministry

27

William and Mary

Public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States; founded in 1693- Anglican

28

Yale University

The third institution of higher learning in the United States was founded in 1701 - founded by Congregationalists

29

Huguenots

French Protestant dissenters, the Huguenots were granted limited toleration under the Edict of Nantes; after King Louis XIV outlawed Protestantism in 1685, many Huguenots fled elsewhere, including to British North America

30

Battle of Québec

British victory in Montreal 1759-60. The last time the French flag flew in Canada.

31

Coureurs de bois

Translated as "runners of the woods," they were unregulated French fur-trappers.

32

Acadians

French residents of eastern Canada many of whom were uprooted by the British in 1755 and scattered as far south as Louisiana, where their descendants became known as "Cajuns"

33

Pontiac's uprising

Ottawa Chief who united Indian tribes and French trappers who had stayed in the frontier against the British - killing up to two-thousand British colonists.

34

Voyageurs

French fur-trappers, more regulated than the "coureurs de bois."

35

French and Indian War (Seven Years' War)

(1754-1763) Nine-year war between the British and the French in North America; it resulted in the expulsion of the French from the North American mainland.

36

King William's War

(1689-1697) First conflict between French settlers and British (American) colonists.

37

Queen Anne's War

(1702-1713) Second in a series of conflicts between the French settlers and British (American) colonists.

38

Albany Plan of Union

Intercolonial congress summoned by the British government to foster greater colonial unity and assure Iroquois support in the escalating war against the French.

39

Louis XIV

long reigning French monarch who took a deep interest in overseas colonization, sending French explorers throughout the New World who established outposts in present-day Canada and Louisiana; he brought France to global superiority and Louisiana was named after him.

40

Samuel de Champlain

"Father of New France" - Led the Huron Indians in a battle against their enemies (and British allies), the Iroquois.

41

Edward Braddock

British major-general in America during the French & Indian War who blundered through the forest, being beaten and killed by a small French and Indian force.

42

William Pitt

British "Organizer of Victory" decided to focus British resources on Canada and the Ohio River Valley rather than the West Indies.

43

James Wolfe

Young British commander who was appointed by William Pitt to command in the Battle of Québec; although fatally wounded, his skillful strategies resulted in British victory

44

Pontiac

Ottawa chief who led an uprising trying to drive the British out of the Ohio Country.

45

New France

France's colonies in North America. Occupied present-day Eastern Canada, the American Midwest, and the Mississippi River Valley.

46

Beaver

Animal whose fur which was in high demand in Europe.

47

Robert de la Salle

Frenchman who explored the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Valley.

48

Treaty of Utrecht

1713 treaty which gave Britain French land in the Americas.

49

James Oglethorpe

British member of Parliament who came up with a plan to create Georgia, partly as a place to send British prisoners.

50

Louisbourg

French seaport town in on Cape Breton island, taken by the British during the French and Indian War.

51

Fort Duquesne

French fort at the forks of the Ohio River in what is now downtown Pittsburgh. The French captured this fort near the end of the war and named it Fort Pitt.

52

George Washington

British colonial commander tasked with removing the French from the Ohio River Valley.

53

Fort Necessity

Fort in Pennsylvania surrendered by George Washington at the beginning of the French and Indian War.

54

Benjamin Franklin

Colonial leader who pushed for the colonies to "join or die!" in fighting against the French.

55

The Great Displacement

The forced eviction of French Acadians by the British during the French and Indian War.

56

Treaty of Paris 1763

Treaty ending the Seven Years' War. Granted a majority of land in the Americas to the British.

57

Proclamation of 1763

British proclamation preventing American colonists from moving west into the American frontier. Passed after Pontiac's Uprising. Angered colonists.

58

Daniel Boone

American frontiersman who first explored west of the Cumberland Gap and the Appalachian Mountains into what is now Kentucky.

59

Republicanism

Political theory of representative government. Strong emphasis on Liberty

60

Radical Whigs

people who feared the threat to liberty posed by the growing power of the monarchy

61

Mercantilism

belief in the benefits of profitable trading; commercialism.

62

Sugar Act

law passed by the British Parliament setting taxes on molasses and sugar imported by the colonies

63

Quartering Act

an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists

64

Stamp Act

1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers "NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION"

65

Admiralty Courts

juryless courts in British colonies that held jurisdiction over maritime activities

66

Stamp Act Congress

held in New York, agreed to not import British goods until Stamp Act was repealed

67

Non-importation Agreements

Boycotts against British goods, adopted in response to the stamp act and later the Townshed and intolerable acts

68

Sons and Daughters of Liberty

Patriotic Groups that played key role in Stamp Act protest

69

Declatory Act

Act that affirmed the British Parliament the right to rule over the colonies

70

Townshed Act

1767 - series of taxes on paint, glass, lead, paper and tea that the colonists boycotted

71

Boston Massacre

an incident in which British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists, killing five people and injuring 6

72

Commities of Correspondence

Local committees established in Massachusetts and later in each of the 13 colonies to maintain colonial opposition to the British policies through letters

73

Boston Tea Party

a 1773 protest in which colonists dressed as Indians dumped 342 crates of British tea into Boston harbor

74

Intolerable Acts

a series of laws enacted by Parliament to punish colonists for Boston Tea Party (1774)

75

Quebec Act

Canceled all colonial claims to western lands and made Catholicism the official religion of Quebec.

76

First continental Congress

Response to the "Intolerable Acts," tried to ask Great Britain to stop (without conflict)

77

The association

Non-importation agreement crafted during the First Continental Congress calling for complete boycott of British goods

78

Lexington and Concord

First battle of the Revolutionary war faught outside Boston the colonial militia successively defended and forced British to retreat to Boston

79

Valley Forge

Washington's troops spent a harsh winter here after losing Philadelphia to the British (1777-1778)

80

Camp Followers

Women and children who followed the Continental Army during the American Revolution providing vital services such as cooking and sewing in return for rations

81

John Hancock

American revolutionary patriot who was president of the Continental Congress

82

George Grenville

British minister who raised a storm of protest by passing the Stamp Act

83

Charles Townshed

Replaced Grenville as finance minister. Created the Townshed Acts of 1776

84

Crispus Attucks

A free black man who was the first person killed in the Revolution at the Boston Massacre.

85

George III

Became king of England in 1727, the 13th colony (Georgia) was named after him

86

Lord North

British Prime Minister under George III; persuaded Parliament to repeal Townshend Act

87

Samuel Adams

American Revolutionary leader and patriot

88

Thomas Hutchinson

British governor of Massachusetts whose stubborn policies helped provoke the Boston Tea Party

89

Marquis de Lafayette

French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution (1757-1834)

90

Baron Von Steuben

Prussian soldier who helped train American forces at Valley Forge in the American Revolutionary War.

91

Lord Dunmore

British royal governor who encouraged runaway slaves to join his army.