American Pageant Chapter 35

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1

ABC-1 Agreement

US-British agreement that stated if the U.S. entered the war, then it would focus its efforts first on Germany. After Germany was defeated, the Allies would focus on Japan

2

Korematsu v. United States

1944 case declared that Japanese internment camps were constitutional

3

War Production Board

Converted factories from civilian to military production. Manufacturing output greatly increased.

4

Henry J Kaiser

Leading American industrialist and shipbuilder during WWII

5

Rubber

The government imposed a national speed limit and gasoline rationing after America's supply of natural ——— from British Malaysia and the Dutch East Indies was broken.

6

Inflation

A scarcity of consumer goods led to this in 1942

7

Office of Price Administration

brought ascending prices under control with extensive regulations

8

War Labor Board

imposed ceilings on wage increases

9

Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act

Caused by massive strikes by workers who were angered by the ceilings on wage increases caused by inflation, this act allowed the government to operate industries that were under strike, like coal mines and railroads

10

Braceros

Mexican workers hired to perform farm labor during World War II

11

Rosie the Riveter

symbol of American women who went to work in factories during the war

12

Baby Boomers

Generational cohort of people born after World War II, when the women left their temporary factory jobs and the men came back from overseas

13

LA, Detroit, and Seattle

War industries sucked people into boomtowns, such as which 3 places?

14

A Philip Randolph

Black leader who threatened a massive march on Washington and demanded equal opportunities in war jobs and the armed forces

15

Fair Employment Practices Commission

Commission established in 1941 by FDR to halt racial discrimination in war production and government jobs

16

mechanical cotton picker

Invention that caused the cotton South's need for cheap labor disappear as well as the migration of many southern blacks to the northern factories

17

Code Talkers

Native American Comanche and Navajo Marines that served as radio operators in the Pacific, Germans and Japanese could not understand their language

18

Guam, Wake, and the Philippines

Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor as well as these 3 places

19

General MacArthur

commander of the US forces in Corregidor in the Philippine Islands who directed the Allied occupation of Japan, which ultimately ended in US surrender

20

Bataan Death March

Brutal 80-mile march of American and Filipino prisoners by Japanese soldiers to prisoner-of-war camps in 1942

21

Coral Sea and Midway

Two naval battles that successfully halted the Japanese island-hoping technique of WWII

22

Guadalcanal Island

6 months of fighting between allies and Japanese; allies took this island

23

Leapfrogging

The American strategy to win the war in the Pacific by regaining the islands that the Japanese had held

24

Battle of the Atlantic

What battle was fought between the German's modern fleet of submarine U-Boats and Allied shipping, which was protected by Allied navies? The introduction of air patrols and radar eventually helped the Allies win

25

El Alamein

Turning point in the North African Campaign

26

Stalingrad

Decisive battle in German invasion of Russia, the Germans were surrounded and systemically destroyed, turning point for Soviet Union

27

Dwight D. Eisenhower

American General who began in North Africa and became the Commander of Allied forces in Europe.

28

Tunisia

Where did the Axis powers officially surrender France in May 1943?

29

Casablanca Conference

1943 conference between FDR and Churchill that produces Unconditional Surrender doctrine vowing to invade Sicily and increase pressure on Italy

30

May 2, 1945

Axis troops surrendered in Italy on this day

31

Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin

The Big Three who met in Iran to plan an attack on Germany

32

June 6, 1944

D-Day; the Allied invasion of Normandy France, what was the date?

33

Paris

What city was liberated in August 1944?

34

Aachen

What German city fell to allies in October 1944?

35

Thomas E Dewey

Republican candidate in the election of 1944, and Vice President John W Bricker

36

December 16, 1944

The German offensive in the Ardennes, the Battle of the Bulge, began on what day? Soviets captures Berlin in 1945.

37

Harry S Truman

Who took over presidency when FDR died suddenly in 1945?

38

May 1945

Germany surrenders to the Allies (V-E Day)

39

Iwo Jima and Okinawa

The last two heavily defended Japanese islands conquered by the United States in 1945

40

Kamikaze

a fighter plane used for suicide missions by Japanese pilots in World War II

41

Potsdam Conference

The third meeting of the Big Three; this time including Truman, they issued an ultimatum to Japan, surrender or be destroyed

42

Manhattan Project

A secret U.S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb initially to be used on Germany

43

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Two Japanese cities on which the U.S. dropped the atomic bombs to end World War II.

44

Hirohito

Emperor of Japan during WWII, Japan surrendered on the condition that he kept his title

45

September 2, 1945

V-J Day; when Japan officially surrenders

46

Propaganda

Used during WWII to show the enemy as savages and subhuman, specifically the Japanese.

47

Japanese Internment

Japanese and Japanese Americans were placed in camps beginning in 1942; upheld by Korematsu v. US

48

WAACs

The "Women's Army Axillary Corps", an acronym given to reference women in the army. Women being in the army changed their roles in society and gained them new respect.

49

WAACS and WAVES

Women's units of the army and navy during World War II

50

WAACs, WAVES, and SPARs

Women's Army Auxiliary Corps, Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service, and US Coast Guard Women's Reserve; the women's branches of the US Army, Navy and Coast Guard, established during WWII to employ women in noncombatant jobs. Women now participated in the armed services in ways that went beyond their traditional roles as nurses

51

Rationing

office ofA limited portion or allowance of food or goods; limitation of use

52

Office of Scientific Research and Development

WWII agency contributes $100Ms to scientific projects like Manhattan, radar, sonar, etc

53

Chester Nimitz

United States admiral of the Pacific fleet during World War II who used aircraft carriers to destroy the Japanese navy (1885-1966)

54

Raymond Spruance

A United State admiral duiring WW2, commanded US naval forces during two of the most significant naval battles in the Pacific theater, the Battle of Midway and the Battle of the Philippine Sea, after the war he was appointed President of the Naval War College, and later served as American ambassador to the Philippines.

55

Guadal Canal (battle)

card image
56

Marianas

Important islands that allowed the United States to fire directly on Japan's home islands.

57

B-29

a high range bomber plane introduced by the U.S. in 1944 against Japan; higher range bomber than had ever been flown before, which allowed it to fly above the range of enemy fighters and anti-craft weapons

58

Wolf Packs

German submarines that traveled in groups in the North Atlantic Ocean to attack US ships and merchant ships.

59

Enigma Machine

German code machine broken by the Allies and used to predict what the Germans would do

60

Erwin Rommel

"Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.

61

Bernard Montgomery

British General who cut off Rommel from advancing into Africa

62

Unconditional Surrender

giving up completely without any concessions

63

Tehran Conference (1943)

Stalin urged Roosevelt and Churchill to open up a new front in Western Europe. Talked of a possible United Nations.

64

D-Day

Allied invasion of France on June 6, 1944

65

George S. Patton

General in the United States Army who helped lead the Allies to victory in the Battle of the Bulge.

66

Battle of the Bulge (1944)

On December 16, 1944, Hitler ordered the last of his reserves, 250,000 troops to attack the American position in the Forest of Ardennes. The Germans drove a bulge deep into the Allied line; however, the Allies stopped the Germans last ditch counterattack and advanced to the Rhine.

67

Holocaust

A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.

68

VE Day

May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered

69

Fire bombing

Bombs dropped on Germany and Japan with intentions to spread fires and take down cities

70

Leyte Island

In October 1944 18,000 Allied troops and 738 ships converged this Island in the Philippines. When General MacArthur returned to the Philippines he announced, "People of the Philippines: I have returned."

71

VJ Day

"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945