American Pageant Chapter 4

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1

headright

The right to acquire a certain amount of land granted to the person who finances the passage of a laborer.

2

disfranchise

To take away the right to vote.

3

civil war

Any confict between the citizens or inhabitants of the same country.

4

tidewater

The territory adjoining water affected by tides--that is, near the seacoast or coastal rivers.

5

middle passage

That portion of a slave ship's journey in which slaves were carried from Africa to the Americas, slaves were branded and chained,and only 80 percent survived.

6

fertility

The ability to mate and produce abundant young.

7

menial

fit for servants; humble or low.

8

militia

An armed force of citizens called out only in emergencies.

9

hierarchy

A social group arranged in ranks or classes.

10

corporation

A group or institution granted legal rights to carry on certain specified activities.

11

jeremiad

A sermon or prophecy recounting wrongdoing, warning of doom, and calling for repentance.

12

lynching

The illegal execution of an accused person by mob action, without due process of law.

13

hinterland

An inland region set back from a port, river, or seacoast.

14

social structure

The basic pattern of the distribution of status and wealth in a society.

15

blue blood

Of noble or upper-class descent

16

For most of their early history, the colonies of Maryland and Virginia

contained far more men than women.

17

The primary beneficiaries of the "headright" system were

landowners who paid the transatlanic passage for indentured servants.

18

The primary cause of Bacon's Rebellion was

the poverty and discontent of many single young men unable to acquire land.

19

African slavery became the prevalent form of labor in the 1680s when

planters were no longer able to rely on white indentured servants as a labor force.

20

The culture that developed among the slaves in the English colonies of North America was

a combination of several African and American cultures.

21

Political and economic power in the southern colonies was dominated by

wealthy planters.

22

Because there were few urban centers in the colonia South,

a professional class of lawyers and financiers was slow to develope.

23

Puritan lawmakers in New England prevented married women from having property rights because

they feared that separate property rights for women would undercut the unity of married couples.

24

In New England, elementary education

was mandatory for any town with more than fifty families.

25

The Congregational church of the Puritans contributed to

the development of basic democracy in the New England town meeting.

26

In contrast ot the Chesapeake Bay colonists, those in New England

enjoyed longer lives and more stable families.

27

The focus of much of New England's politics, religion, and education was the instituion of

the town.

28

The "Half-Way Covenant" provided

baptism but not "full communion" to people who had not had a conversion experience.

29

Those people accused of being witches in Salem were generally

from families associated with Salem's burgeoning market economy.

30

English settlers greatly changed the character of the New England environment by

their extensive introduction of livestock.

31

Families

Early Maryland and Virginia settlers had difficulty creating them and even more difficulty making them last

32

Disease

Primary cause of death among tobacco-growing settlers

33

Indentured Servants

Immigrants who received passage to America in exchange for a fixed term of labor. Primary laborers in early southern colonies until the 1680s.

34

Headright

Maryland and Virginia's system of granting land to anyone who would pay trans-Atlantic passage for laboreres.

35

Hung

Fate of many of Nathaniel Bacon's followers, though not of Bacon himself.

36

Rhode Island

American colony that was home to the Newport slave market and many slave traders.

37

Royal African Company

Organization whose loss of the slave trade monopoly in 1698 led to free-enterprise expansion of the business.

38

Gullah

African-American dialect that blended English with Yoruba, Ibo, and Hausa.

39

Slave Revolts

Uprisings that occurred in New York City in 1712 and in South Carolina in 1739.

40

FFV's

Wealthy extended clans like the Fitzhughs, Lees, and Washingtons that dominated politics in the most populous colony.

41

Early 20's

Approximate marriage age of most New England women.

42

Town Meeting

The basic local political instituion of New England, in which all freemen gathered to elect officials and debate local affairs.

43

Half-Way Covenant

Formula devised by Puritan ministers in 1662 to offer partial church membership to people who had not experienced conversion.

44

Salem Witch Trials

Late seventeenth-century judicial event that inflamed popular feelings, led to the deaths of twenty people, and weakened the Puritan clergy's prestige.

45

Farming

Primary occupation of most seventeenth-century Americans.

46

Chesapeake

Virginia-Maryland bay area, site of the earliest colonial settlements.

47

Nathaniel Bacon

Agitator who led poor former indentured servants and frontiersmen on a rampage agains Indians and colonial government.

48

Governor Berkeley

Colonial Virginia official who crushed rebels and wreaked cruel revenge.

49

Ringshout

West African religious rite, retained by African-Americans, in which participants responded to the shouts of a preacher.

50

New York City slave revolt of 1712

Major middle-colonies rebellion that caused thirty-three deaths.

51

"New England Conscience"

The legacy of Puritan religion that inspired idealism and reform among later generations of Americans.

52

Harvard

The oldest college in America, originally based on the Puritan commitment to an educated ministry.

53

William and Mary

The oldest college in the South, founded in 1793

54

Leislers's Rebellion

Small New York revolt of 1689-1691 that reflected class antagonism between landlords and merchants.

55

Social Class

1. planters 2. small land owning farmers 3. free laborers 4. indentured servants 5. slaves

56

Massachusetts

The first colony to pass laws for education.

57

New England's commercial wealth

fishing, lumber, and non-agricultural commodities.