Movement to reform the Catholic Church launched in Germany. Reformers questioned the authority of the Pope, sought to eliminate the selling of indulgences and encouraged the translation of the bible. Launched in England when Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church.
Sir Walter Raleigh's failed colonial settlement off the coast of North Carolina.
Spanish fleet defeated in the English Channel in 1588. The defeat marked the beginning of the decline of the Spanish Empire.
Legal principle that the oldest son inherits all family property or land. Landowner's younger sons, forced to seek their fortunes elsewhere, pioneered early exploration and settlement of the Americas.
Short-term partnership between multiple investors to fund a commercial enterprise; such arrangements were used to fund England's early ventures
Legal document granted by a government to some group or agency to implement a stated purpose, and spelling out the attending rights and obligations.
(1607) First permanent English settlement in North America founded by the Virginia Company.
First Anglo-Powhatan War
(1614) Series of clashes between the Powhatan Confederacy and English settlers in Virginia. English colonists torched and pillaged Indian villages, applying tactics used in England's campaigns against the Irish
Second Anglo-Powhatan War
(1644-1646) Last-ditch effort by the Indians to dislodge Virginia Settlements. The resulting peace treaty formally separated white and Indian areas of settlement.
Act of Toleration
(1649) Passed in Maryland, it guaranteed toleration to all Christians but decreed the death penalty for those, like Jews and atheists, who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ. Ensured that Maryland would continue to attract a high proportion of Catholic migrants throughout the colonial period.
Barbados Slave Code
(1661) First formal statute governing the treatment of slaves, which provided for harsh punishments against offending slaves but lacked penalties for the mistreatment of slaves by masters.
Frontier farmers who illegally occupied land owned by others or not yet officially opened for settlement.
(1711-1713) Began with an Indian attack on Newbern, North Carolina. After the Tuscaroras were defeated, remaining Indian survivors migrated northward.
Defeated by the south Carolinians in the war of 1715-1716. The defeat devastated the last of the coastal Indian tribes in the southern colonies.
A territory between two antagonistic powers, intended to minimize the possibility of conflict between them. Georgia was this type of colony between British and Spanish territory.
Bound together five tribes - the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas - in the Mohawk Valley of what is now New York.
King Henry VIII
Broke with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s
Queen Elizabeth I
Protestant queen. When she ascended the throne, Protestantism became dominant in England and tension with Catholic Spain increased. Saw colonies in America as an outlet for Catholics.
Sir Francis Drake
Pirated treasure from Spanish ships and gave it to Queen Elizabeth, who knighted him, defying Spanish protests.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Organized an expedition that first landed on North Carolina's Roanoke Island.
Captain John Smith
Established the fist permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown.
Lord de la Warr
Imposed a harsh military regime at Jamestown and undertook aggressive military action against the Indians.
Responsible for the first successful cultivation of tobacco in the colony of Virginia, husband of Pocahontas.
Founded Maryland for profit and for a safe haven for persecuted Catholics.
Pre-Columbian Native American culture in Ohio, Indianna, West Virginia, Kentucky, New York and Pennsylvania.
Ancient American civilization that arose in Ohio and other parts of eastern North America.
A mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern and Southeastern U.S.
Native Americans that lived in longhouses is what is now central and upstate New York.
Intellectually advanced in civilization in what is now Southern Mexico. Conquered by the Spanish.
Largest empire in Pre-Columbian America, had lots of gold, conquered by Fransisco Pizarro.
Native Empire in what is now central Mexico, agricultural society, violent, lots of enemies, better understanding of astronomy and math, conquered by Cortes.
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese, responsible for the earl development of European exploration, started a sailing school and studied wind patterns.
A state that self identifies as deriving its political legitimacy from serving as a sovereign entity for a nation as a territorial unit.
Italian explorer who sailed to the Americas.
Treaty of Tordesillas
(1494) Signed by Spain and Portugal, dividing the territories of the new world. Spain received a bulk of territory in the Americas, compensating Portugal with titles to lands in Africa and Asia.
Lead the first voyage to make it all the way around the world.
Conquered the Incas by capturing their leaders, the empire collapsed.
Spanish Government's policy to give Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to Christianize them.
Permission given by the Spanish government to other countries to sell slaves to Spanish colonies in the Americas.
A pair of English joint-stock companies chartered by James I with the purposes of establishing settlements on the coast of North America.
Colonies where governors were appointed directly by the king. Governors ran into trouble with colonial legislatures.
English protestant reformers who sought to purify the church of England of Catholic rituals and creeds.
Small group of Puritans who sought to break away entirely from the Church of England; after initially settling in Holland, a number of English Separatists went to Plymouth Bay.
(1620) Colony founded by a group of Separatists and Anglicans. Most citizens were fleeing religious persecution, and legal systems became closely tied to their beliefs.
(1620) Agreement to form a majoritarian government in Plymouth, signed aboard the Mayflower. Created a foundation for self-government in the colony.
Man who was elected to be governor of the Plymouth Colony 30 times.
Military leader and native negotiator in the Plymouth colony. Used brutality to keep natives away and angered the Indians.
Native American who assisted the pilgrims after their first winter, helped them survive.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
(1630) Established by non-separating Puritans, it soon grew to be the largest and most influential of the New England colonies.
Led the first large wave of migrants from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630, governor for 12 years.
migration of 70,000 refugees from England to North American colonies.
House of Burgesses
First assembly of elected representatives of English colonies in North America.
Colonies under the control of local proprietors, who appointed colonial governors. (Maryland, Pennsylvania and Delaware)
Agricultural society in the Chesapeake region (Virginia and Maryland). It was a royal colony with a colonial legislature.
Sir William Berkeley
Colonial governor of Virginia and one of the lords proprietors of the colony of Carolina.
Dominant theological belief of the New England Puritans based on the teachings of John Calvin. They believed in predestination .
(1639) Document drafted by settlers in the Connecticut River Valley. It was the first "modern constitution" establishing a democratically controlled government.
(1636-1638) Series of clashes between English settlers and Pequot Indians in the Connecticut River Valley. Ended in the slaughter of the Pequots by the Puritans.
King Philip's War
(1675-1676) Series of assaults by Metacom, King Philip, on English settlements in New England. The Attacks slowed the westward migration of English settlers.
Dominion of New England
(1686-1689) Administrative union created by royal authority, incorporating all of New England, New York and Jersey. Places under the rule of Sir Edmund Andros who curbed popular assemblies, taxed residents without their consent and strictly enforced Navigation Laws.
Series of laws passed, beginning in 1651, to regulate colonial shipping; the acts provided that only English ships would be allowed to trade in English and colonial ports and that all goods destined for the colonies would first pass through England.
Glorious (or Bloodless) Revolution
(1688) Relatively peaceful overthrow of the unpopular catholic monarch, James II, replacing him with William III and Mary who increased parliamentary oversights and new limits on monarchical authority.
(1688-1683) Unofficial policy of relaxed royal control over trade and only weak enforcement of Navigation Laws.
Vast tracts of land along the Hudson River in New Netherlands granted to wealthy promoters in exchange for bringing fifty settlers to the property.
Laws designed to restrict personal behavior in accord with a strict code of morality.
(1636) Began the colony of Providence Plantation, provided a refuge for religious minorities and started the first Baptist Church of America.
Belief that the "elect" need not obey the law of either God or man; espoused in the colonies by Anne Hutchinson.
Puritan man who founded the colony of Connecticut.
English Puritan clergyman and co-founder of the New Haven colony.
Sir Edmund Andros
Ruled the Dominion of New England.
Migrants who, in exchange for transatlantic passage, bound them selves to a colonial employer for a term of service. Their migration addressed the chronic labor shortage in the colonies and facilitated settlement.
System employed in the tobacco colonies to encourage the importation of indentured servants, the system allowed an individual to acquire fifty acres of land if he paid for a laborer's passage to the colony.
(1676) Uprising of Virgina backcountry farmers and indentured servants led by Nathaniel Bacon; intially a response to Governor Berkeley's refusal to protect them from Indian attacks, the rebellion eventually grew into a broader conflict between impoverished settlers and the planter elite.
Royal African Company
English joint-stock company that enjoyed a state-granted monopoly on the the colonial slave trade from 1672 until 1698.
Transatlantic voyage slaves endured between Africa and the colonies. Mortality rates were notoriously high.
New York Slave Revolt
(1712) Uprising of approximately two dozen slaves that resulted in the deaths of nine whites and the brutal execution of twenty-one participate blacks.
South Carolina Slave Revolt (Stono River)
(1739) Uprising of more than fifty South Carolina blacks along the Stono River. The slaves attempted to reach Spanish Florida but were stopped by the South Carolina militia.
Self-governing Puritan congregations without the hierarchical establishment of the Anglican Church.
Often-fiery sermons laments the waning piety of parishioners first delivered in New England in the mid-seventeenth century.
(1662) Agreement allowing unconverted offspring of church members to baptize their children. It signified a waning of religious zeal among second and third generation Puritans.
(1689-1691) Armed conflict between aspiring merchants led by Jacob Leisler and the ruling elite of New York. One of many uprisings that erupted across the colonies when wealthy colonists attempted to recreate European social structures in the New World.
Salem Witch Trials
(1692-1693) Series of witchcraft trials launched after a group of adolescent girls in Salem, Massachusetts, claimed to have been bewitched by certain older women of the town. Twenty individuals were put to death before the trials were ended by the Governor.
(1764) Armed march on Philadelphia by Scotts-Irish frontiersman in protest against the Quaker establishment's lenient policies toward Native Americans.
(1768-1771) Eventually violent uprising of backcountry settlers in North Carolina against unfair taxation and the control of colonial affairs by the seaboard elite.
Exchange of rum, slaves and molasses between the North American colonies, Africa and the West Indies.
(1737) Tax on imported molasses passed by parliament in an effort to squelch North American trade with the French West Indies. It proved largely ineffective due to widespread smuggling.
Belief that salvation is offered to all humans but is conditional on acceptance of God's grace. Different from Calvinism, which emphasizes predestination and unconditional election.
(1730s and 1740s) Religious revival that swept the colonies. Participating ministers (Edwards and Whitfield) placed an emphasis on direct, emotive spirituality.
Orthodox clergymen who reject the emotionalism of the Great Awakening in favor of a more rational spirituality.
Ministers who took part in the revivalist, emotive religious tradition during the Great Awakening.
Poor Richard's Almanack
(1732-1758) Widely read annual pamphlet edited by Benjamin Franklin. Best know for its proverbs and aphorisms emphasizing thrift, industry, morality and common sense.
(1734-1735) New York libel case against John Peter Zenger. Established the principle that truthful statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel.
Woman who carried to logical extremes the puritan doctrine of predestination.
Founded by Roger Williams with complete freedom of religion, no oaths regarding religious beliefs and no taxes to support a state church, sheltered the abused Quakers.
Officially known as the Religious Society of Friends, refused to support the Church of England with taxes, didn't take oaths and refused military service.
Englishman and persecuted Quaker. In 1861 he secured a grant from the king for land in America and called the land Pennsylvania.