American Pageant Chapter 12
The War of 1812 ended in a relative ____ , but showed the US willingness to fight for their beliefs and earned respect from the European nations.
The War of 1812 ended in a relative draw, but showed the US willingness to fight for their beliefs and _____ from the European nations.
War of 1812 is known as the "Second War for _____"
War of 1812 fought mostly over issues of _____ and impressment.
War of 1812 fought mostly over issues of trade and ______.
Battle of New Orleans
Won by the US and Andrew Jackson. Was a decisive win for the United States in the War of 1812.
Congress of Vienna
(1814-1815): Convention of major European powers to redraw the boundaries of continental Europe after the defeat of Napoleonic France.
Treaty of Ghent
(1815): Ended the War of 1812 in a virtual draw, restoring prewar borders but failing to address and of the grievances that first brought America into the war.
(1814-1815): meeting of Federalists from 5 New England states who opposed the War of 1812 and resented the strength of Southern and Western interests in Congress and in the White House.
(1817): Signed by Britain and the US, established strict limits on naval armaments in the Great Lakes, a first step in the full demilitarization of the US-Canadian border, finalized in the 1870s.
Tariff of 1816
first of its kind, created primarily to shield New England manufacturers from the inflow of British goods after the War of 1812. (aimed to protect American industry)
(1820s): Henry Clay's three pronged system to promote industry. Clay advocated a strong banking system, a protective tariff, and a federally funded transportation network.
a strong banking system
Henry Clay advocated for a protective tariff, a federally funded transportation network, and ____
a protective tariff
Henry Clay advocated for a strong banking system, a federally funded transportation network, and ____
a federally funded transportation network.
Henry Clay advocated for a strong banking system, a protective tariff, and _____
The Era of Good Feelings
(1816-1824): Popular name for the period of one-party (Democratic-Republican) rule during James Madison's presidency.
The Panic of 1819
severe financial crisis brought on primarily by the efforts of the Bank of the United States to curb over-speculation on western lands.
Land act of 1820
Fueled the settlement of the Northwest and Missouri territories by lowering the price of public land. Also prohibited the purchase of federal acreage on credit, thereby eliminating one of the causes of the Panic of 1819.
(1819): Failed proposal to prohibit the importation of slaves into Missouri territory and pave the way for gradual emancipation. Southerners opposed this, which they perceived as a threat to the sectional balance between the North and the South.
Widely used term for American Slavery in the South. Its use in the first half of the 19th century reflected a growing division in the North, where slavery was gradually abolished, and the South, where slavery became increasingly entrenched.
The Missouri Compromise
(1820): Allowed the state to enter as a slave state but preserved the balance between North and South by carving free-soil Maine out of the Massachusetts and prohibiting slavery from territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase, north of the line 36.30.
McCulloch v. Maryland
(1819): one of the first and most important Supreme Court cases on federal power; strengthened federal authority and upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States.
idea of using the elastic clause as a way of interpreting the constitution
Cohens v. Virginia
Case that reinforced federal supremacy by establishing the right of the Supreme court to review decisions of state supreme courts in questions involving the powers of the federal government.
Gibbons v. Ogden
(1824): suit over whether New York State could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters. The ruling reasserted that Congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce.
Fletcher v. Peck
(1810): Established firmer protection for private property and asserted the right of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws in conflict with the Constitution.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
(1819): Supreme Court case that sustained the university's original charter against changes proposed by the New Hampshire state legislature, thereby protecting corporations from domination by state governments
(1818): Signed by Britain and the US, the pact allowed New England fishermen access to Newfoundland fisheries, established the Northern border of Louisiana territory and provided for the joint occupation of the Oregon Country for 10 years.
Florida Purchase Territory (Adams-Onis Treaty)
(1819): Under the agreement, Spain ceded Florida to the US, which, in exchange, abandoned its claims to Texas.
Warned European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas. The US largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who sought free access to Latin American markets. Could be viewed as the American Self-Defense Doctrine.
(1824): fixed the line of 54.40' as the southernmost boundary of Russian holdings in North America
Oliver Hazard Perry
American naval officer whose decisive victory over a British fleet on Lake Erie during the War of 1812 reinvigorated American morale and paved the way for General William Henry Harrison's victory at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
Francis Scott Key
Author and lawyer who composed the "Star Spangled Banner", our national anthem, while observing the bombardment of Fort McHenry from the deck of a British ship where he was detained.
Revolutionary war soldier, statesman, and 5th president. As president, he supported protective tariffs, and a national bank, but maintained a Jeffersonian opposition to federally funded improvements. Though he sought to transcend partisanship, even undertaking a goodwill tour of the states in 1817, his presidency was rocked by partisan and sectional conflicts.
Supreme Court Chief Justice who expanded the power of both the Supreme Court and the National Government
Early American Writer. Wrote Rumplestilskin and Legend of Sleepy Hollow
James Fenimore Cooper
Early American Writer. Wrote the Deerslayer, and Last of the Mohicans
Second War of Independence
War of 1812
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Built between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. Considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, it allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
National Road (Cumberland Road)
The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.
Butternuts vs. Yankees
Butternuts were the Southerners (that moved West) while Yankees were the Northerners (that moved West)
A northern American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises.
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
The Treaty of 1818 with England
Called for a 10 year joint occupation of the Oregon country by both American citizens and British subjects
heightened sense of nationalism
The War of 1812 resulted in a _____ _____ _____ _____
Formal withdrawal of states or regions from a nation
Panic of 1819 was caused by over-speculation on ____
Agreement in which Spain gave up all of Florida to the United States
As a part of the Missouri Compromise, this line was drawn in the Louisiana Territory, which divided the North and South