American Pageant Chapters 31-32
Warren G. Harding
Pres.1921 laissez-faire, little regard for government or presidency. "return to normalcy" after Wilson and his progressive ideals. Office became corrupt: allowed drinking in prohibition, had an affair, surrounded himself w/ cronies (used office for private gain). Died after 3 years in office, VP: Coolidge took over
Charles Evans Hughes
A reformist Republican governor of New York, who had gained fame as an investigator of malpractices by gas and insurance companies and by the coal trust. He later ran against Wilson in the 1916 election.
An American financier, he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by President Harding in 1921 and served under Coolidge and Hoover. While he was in office, the government reduced the WW I debt by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially. He is often called the greatest Secretary of the Treasury after Hamilton.
1928; Republican; approach to economy known as voluntarism (avoid destroying individuality/self-reliance by government coercion of business); of course, in 1929 the stock market crashed; tried to fix it through creating the Emergency Relief and Construction Act and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (didn't really work)
Albert B. Fall
Secretary of the interior for Warren Harding, caused the Teapot Dome Scandal
Harry M. Daugherty
was an American politician. He is best known as a Republican Party boss, and member of the Ohio Gang, the name given to the group of advisers surrounding president Warren G. Harding.
U.S Secretary of State in 1928 who is credited with arranging an international treaty that was designed to renounce war and promote peace
Charles R. Forbes
He skimmed money as chief of the Veterans Bureau. He and his crowd pilfered about $200 million while building veterans hospitals. He spent a whopping two years in jail.
(1923-1925) and (1925-1929), taciturn; small gov't conservative; laissez faire ideology; in favor of immigration restriction (Immigration Act); reduced the tax burden; the Bonus Bill was passed over his veto; Revenue Act of 1924; Kellogg-Briand Pact
John W. Davis
This Clarksburg native, who was the Democratic presidential nominee in 1924, represented the school systems in the historic U.S. Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education.
Robert La Follette
1855-1925. Progressive Wisconsin Senator and Governor. Staunch supporter of the Progressive movement, and vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, WWI, and League of Nations.
An American banker and diplomat, he negotiated an agreement between France, Britain, and Germany that American banks would make loans to Germans which would enable them to meet their reparations payments
A General who commanded a broad offensive against the Japanese that would move north from Australia, through New Guinea, and eventually to the Philippines. Was tasked with taking down the Bonus Army.
Hoover's secretary of state, who sought sanctions against Japan for its aggression in Manchuria
First Catholic nominee for president, known as the "Common Man," elected to New York State Assembly in 1903, sought Democratic presidential nomination in 1924, ran as Democratic candidate in 1928. Ties with Tammany Hall.
A group of poker-playing, men that were friends of President Warren Harding. Harding appointed them to offices and they used their power to gain money for themselves. They were involved in scandals that ruined Harding's reputation even though he wasn't involved.
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
Declared unconstitutional a minimum wage law for women on the grounds that it denied women freedom of contract
steel strike of 1919
A work stoppage that began when some 365,000 steelworkers in Pennsylvania walked off the job to demand recognition of their union, higher wages, and shorter hours. Post-WWI strike, the greatest in American history, led by the AFL that eventually failed under the pressure of the Red Scare.
World War I veterans' group that promoted patriotism and economic benefits for former servicemen
Washington Disarmament Conference
An international conference on the limitation of naval fleet construction begins in Washington. Under the leadership of the American Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes the representatives of the USA, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan pledge not to exceed the designated sizes of their respective naval fleets
1921. Treaty between the US, Great Britain, France, and Japan to maintain the status quo in the South Pacific, that no countries could seek further territorial gain.
1922. Treaty that was essentially a reinvention of the Open Door Policy. All members to allow equal and fair trading rights with China. Signed by (9) US, Japan, China, France, Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal.
Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another
1922 and 1930, raised tariffs extremely high on manufactured goods; benefited domestic manufacturers, but limited foreign trade
Teapot Dome Scandal
1929 - The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills, also known as "Tea Pot Dome" was taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which leased the land to oil companies. Several Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes. Due to the investigation government officials Daugherty, Denky, and Fall were forced to resign.
A plan to rehabilitate American agriculture by raising the domestic prices of farm products *Effects of the protective tariff and burdens of debt and taxation had created a serious agricultural depression and grew steadily worse
A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.
"Dry," Protestant southern Democrats who rebelled against their party's "wet," Catholic presidential nominee in 1928 and voted for the Republican candidate
charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliation
October 29, 1929; date of the worst stock-market crash in American history and beginning of the Great Depression.
Muscle Shoals Bill
Hoover fights all schemes he regards as "socialistic". This was designed to dam the Tennessee River and was ultimately embraced by Franklin Roosevelt's Tennessee Valley Authority. (He thinks that it is suspiciously "socialistic"). Hoover vetoed this measure because he opposed the government's selling electricity in competition with its own citizens in private companies.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Agency established in 1932 to provide emergency relief to large businesses, insurance companies, and banks.
(Hoover) attempt to improve the lot of the union worker. It outlawed Yellow Dog Contracts, banned federal courts from issuing injunctions against workers in non-violent strikes, and protected the right of workers to unionize
1932 - Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill authorizing immediate assurance of $2.4 billion, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army to get the veterans out of there.
1932, Hoover's Secretary of State said the US would not recognize territorial changes resulting from Japan's invasion of Manchuria
One of two major factions largely within the Republican party, composed of the party regulars and professional politicians. They were preoccupied with building up the party machinery, developing party loyalty, and acquiring and dispensing patronage. They were challenged by progressives from around 1896 to the 1930s.
Esch-Cummins Transportation Act of 1920
Encouraged private consolidation of the railroads and pledged the Interstate Commerce Commission to guarantee their profitability.
Merchant Marine Act of 1920
authorized the Shipping Board, which controlled about 1500 vessels, to dispose of much of the hastily built wartime fleet at bargain-basement prices
Railway Labor Board
ordered a wage cut of 12% in 1922; provoked a 2 month strike; strike ended when Attorney General Daugherty clamped injunctions on strikers (unions wilted and membership dropped to 30%)
Federal bureau created in 1921 to provide hospitals and services to disabled veterans
1924 Adjusted Compensation Act
Gave every veteran a paid-up insurance policy due in 20 years, adding another $3.5 billion to the war costs.
A policy of non-participation in international economic and political relations
Five-Power Treaty (1922)
This naval limitation treaty, signed by the U.S., Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy, set a ship ratio for the countries involved and called for the scrapping of 1,900,000 tons of warships.
Act driven through congress by the "farm bloc" of congressmen; it exempted farmers' marketing cooperatives from antitrust prosecution.
After the Versailles treaty, Germany was expected to pay 132 billion gold marks to France and Britain. Weimar republic paid in 1921 but declared unable to pay more in 1922. Britain and France were also in debt to America from War Loans.
"Rum, Romanism, and Ruin"
mudslinging accusation onto Al Smith
Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929
This act established the Federal Farm Board, a lending bureau for hard-pressed farmers. The act also aimed to help farmers help themselves through new producers' cooperatives. As the depression worsened in 1930, the Board tried to bolster falling prices by buying up surpluses, but it was unable to cope with the flood of farm produce to market.
a situation in which the supply of manufactured goods exceeds the demand
extreme expansion to a uncontrollable point (as in a country) or to its breaking point (as in a rubberband)
Depression in America was further pushed downward by a chain reaction financial collapse in Europe.
Depression shantytowns, named after the president whom many blamed for their financial distress
Herbert Hoover's belief that people must be self-reliant and not depend upon the federal government for assistance.
Hoover gave relief to big corporations thinking that they would spend money and give it to the bottom of economic pyramid relieving all nation.
economic theory that favored public works projects because they put money into the hands of consumers who would buy more goods, stimulating the economy
Bonus Expeditionary Force
Thousands of World War I veterans, who insisted on immediate payment of their bonus certificates, marched on Washington in 1932; violence ensued when President Herbert Hoover ordered their tent villages cleared.
Province in northeast China invaded by Japan in September 1931
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
Attorney General who rounded up many suspects who were thought to be un-American and socialistic; he helped to increase the Red Scare; he was nicknamed the "Fighting Quaker" until a bomb destroyed his home; he then had a nervous breakdown and became known as the "Quaking Fighter."
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti
Italian anarchists convicted and executed for murder despite scarce evidence against them
He defended the immigrants and said they needed their different cultures because they were unique, and stressed the preservation of identity
He advocated greater cross-fertilization between immigrants and then America would become a multi-cultured nation
A mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties and the problems with gangs.
He was a philosopher who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers' goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard."
John T. Scopes
An educator in Tennessee who was arrested for teaching evolution. This trial represented the Fundamentalist vs the Modernist. The trial placed a negative image on fundamentalists, and it showed a changing America.
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
A famed criminal defense lawyer for Scopes, who supported evolution. He caused William Jennings Bryan to appear foolish when Darrow questioned Bryan about the Bible.
Secretary of Treasury under President Harding, Coolidge and Hoover, who instituted a Republican policy of reduced government spending, lower taxes to the wealthy and higher tariffs
A founder of the "new profession" of advertising, which used the persuasion ploy, seduction, and sexual suggestion. He was a prominent New York partner in a Madison Avenue firm. He published a best seller in 1925, The Man Nobody Knows, suggesting that Jesus Christ was the greatest ad man of all time. He even praised Christ's "executive ability." He encouraged any advertising man to read the parables of Jesus.
"Home Run King" in baseball, provided an idol for young people and a figurehead for America
United States prizefighter who was world heavyweight champion (1895-1983)
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
Frederick W. Taylor
an engineer, an inventor, and a tennis player. He sought to eliminate wasted motion. Famous for scientific-management especially time-management studies.
United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)
The "Inventor of Hollywood", was an American film director who pioneered modern film-making techniques. Directed "Birth of A Nation"
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
Austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis.
"Jelly Roll" Morton
African American pianist, composer, arranger, and band leader from New Orleans; Bridged that gap between the piano styles of ragtime and jazz; Was the first important jazz composer
African American poet who described the rich culture of African American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.
African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American author who wrote Ethan Frome
Was a female American author who achieved recognition for her novels of frontier life on the Great Plains. Her works include: O Pioneers!, My Ántonia, and The Song of the Lark. In 1923 she was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for "One of Ours (1922), a novel set during World War I
H. L. Mencken
attacked patriotism. prohibition, and other timely topics in his monthly magazine "The American Mercury"
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Wrote literature opposing society, was not famous in his day but is now known for Great Gatsby and many other writings.
Lost Generation writer, spent much of his life in France, Spain, and Cuba during WWI, notable works include A Farewell to Arms
An American writer helped Ernest Hemingway into the literary community in Paris. Hemingway later parodied this writer's work, which led to a souring of the relationship between Hemingway and Gertrude Stein.
American novelist who satirized middle-class America in his 22 works, including Babbitt (1922) and Elmer Gantry (1927). He was the first American to receive (1930) a Nobel Prize for literature.
20th Century playwright. Desire Under the Elms, The Hairy Ape, and The Iceman Cometh. Nobel laureate in literature
Zora Neale Hurston
African American writer and folklore scholar who played a key role in the Harlem Renaissance
A poet who was a major figure in the Harlem Renaissance movement and wrote the poem "If We Must Die" after the Chicago riot of 1919.
Twentieth-century novelist, used the stream-of-consciousness technique in his novel The Sound of Fury, whose intense drama is seen through the eyes of an idiot.
A person who, especially in the United States in the 19th century, favors the interests of established inhabitants over those of immigrants.
A period of general fear of communists
1917 uprising in Russia led by Vladimir Lenin which established a communist government and withdrew Russia from World War I.
Sacco and Vanzetti case
These were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities.
Ku Klux Klan
This organization was a group of Americans that often engaged in the lynching of African Americans, Jews, Catholics, among many other groups that were not native-born white Protestants.
The Birth of a Nation
A dramatic silent film from 1915 about the South during and after the Civil War. It was directed by D. W. Griffith. The film, the first so-called spectacular, is considered highly controversial for its portrayal of African-Americans. It also glorified KKK members and carpetbaggers.
Immigration Act of 1924
This act abolished the National Origins system; increased annual admission to 170,000 and put a population cap of 20,000 on immigrants from any single nation.
national origins quota system
(1924) limited Europe immigration in 1924. It was widely supported by rural areas and banned all Asian immigrants from coming to the US. It affected the flow of immigrants into the US and hurt diversity. It was also considered the most enduring of the rural counterattacks and lasted until the 1960s
the mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the American nation. The United States, with its history of immigration, has often been called a melting pot.
Bill passed by Congress to enforce the language of the 18th Amendment. This bill made the manufacture and distribution of alcohol illegal within the borders of the United States.
Broad movement in Protestantism in the U.S. which tried to preserve what it considered the basic ideas of Christianity against criticism by liberal theologies. It stressed the literal truths of the Bible and creation.
The region of the American South, extending roughly from North Carolina west to Oklahoma and Texas, where Protestant Fundamentalism and belief in literal interpretation of the Bible were traditionally strongest.
The Man Nobody Knows
One of the most successful books of the 1920s due to the advertising executive Bruce Barton. It portrayed Jesus Christ as not only a religious prophet but also a super salesman. Bruce advertised the message that Jesus had been concerned with living a full and rewarding life and that men and women of the twentieth century should do the same.
A cheap and simple car designed by Ford. It allowed for more Americans to own a car.
System of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford.
a management theory using efficiency experts to examine each work operations and find ways to minimize the time needed to complete it
Amos 'n' Andy
Various regions heard voices with standardized accents, and countless millions "tuned in" to perennial comedy favorites like "Amos 'n' Andy." White actors depicting African Americans in a pejorative way
The Jazz Singer
1927 - The first movie with sound; this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer; Al Jolson.
Equal Rights Amendment
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
United Negro Improvement Association
A group founded by Marcus Garvey to promote the settlement of American blacks in their own "African homeland"
American fundamentalist minister; he used colorful language and powerful sermons to drive home the message of salvation through Jesus and to oppose radical and progressive groups.
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment.
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment.
Emergency Quota Act of 1921
1921 legislation that limited immigration to 3% of the people of their nationality living in the US in 1910
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
A law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages
Theory of Evolution taught in schools
Assembly Line Production
Arrangement of workers, machines, and equipment in which the product being assembled passes consecutively from operation to operation until completed.
Buying on Credit
People bought with credit and paid later. Many went into debt. "Possess today and pay tomorrow"
Installment plan buying
Paying for goods in small intervals instead of all at once, usually with interest added
First to achieve a sustained, controlled flight in a powered airplane
invented the radio
The first commercial radio station in America (in Pittsburgh).
The Great Train Robbery
A 1903 black and white silent western film that was 14 minutes long and the first film to tell a coherent story. Due to its success it is credited for the creating Hollywood and the success of the movie industry.
The first movie houses; admission was one nickel
movies with sound, beginning in 1927
defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group
Young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
wrote "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," "The Waste Land" and "The Hollow Men;" British WWI poet, playwright, and literary critic
Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance; he was a talented trumpeter whose style influenced many later musicians.
a term popularized during the Harlem Renaissance implying a more outspoken advocacy of dignity and a refusal to submit quietly to the practices and laws of Jim Crow racial segregation.
Frank Loyd Wright
architect - prairie
An involvement in risky business transactions in an effort to make a quick or large profit.
buying on margin
paying a small percentage of a stock's price as a down payment and borrowing the rest
Harding, Coolidge, & Hoover Treasury Secretary. Reduced the tax burden on the wealthy and contributed to the stock-market boom.