American Pageant Chapter 18

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1

Lewis Cass

Democratic Candidate selected for the election of 1848. He was a veteran of the War of 1812 and an experienced senator and diplomat.

2

Popular Sovereignty

The doctrine that stated that it was up to each individual state on the issue of slavery--the federal government should not decide that for them. This was established by Lewis Cass, making his views on slavery well-known, even though his party did not officially have any views.

3

Zachary Taylor

The Whig party's nomination for the presidency in 1848

4

Free Soil Party

The party that advocated complete abolition of slavery in the new territories and all states, attracting a variety of followers.

5

California Gold Rush

The 1849 influx of settlers in California who were seeking gold.

6

Seventh of March speech

Daniel Webster's speech in congress in 1850 that advocated compromise over the issue of slavery, strengthening Union sentiment

7

William H. Seward

The freshman senator from New York who spoke against both secession and slavery , not using the power of compromise.

8

Millard Fillmore

Taylor's vice president who took over as the 13th president of the US after Taylor's death

9

Compromise of 1850

Act of congress ordering that California was admitted as a free state, Texas gave up its claims to tracts of New Mexico (was paid for it), New Mexico and Utah would be slave states when admitted, and a more stringent fugitive-slave law was passed.

10

fire-eaters

Southerners in favor of secession who announced the convention in Nashville to discuss leaving the union.

11

Fugitive Slave Law

The "Bloodhound Bill" of 1850 that took away many rights from blacks and made whites who helped runaway slaves liable to fines and imprisonment.

12

Franklin Pierce

The Democratic candidates in the 1852 election,a second Dark Horse, being an unknown lawyer from New Hampshire

13

Winfield Scott

Hero of the war with Mexico, he was the Whig's candidate in the 1852 election whose defeat effectively ended the Whig party.

14

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

The 1850 treaty that prevented both the US and Britain from seeking complete control of the Central American isthmus

15

William Walker

American adventurer who seized Nicaragua and opened it to slavery, but was overthrown by other South American governments and killed.

16

Black Warrior

the American Steamship that was seized by Cubans which sparked conflict between the two countries

17

Ostend Manifesto

The proclamation that the US would pay $120 million for Cuba, and if Spain refused the US would be justified in taking it if it threatened the US, but the proclamation was dropped by Pierce.

18

Opium War

A war between China and Britain that resulted in Britain's right to sell opium in China, causing the US to want to catch up in the Pacific market

19

Treaty of Wanghia

The first formal diplomatic agreement between the US and China, it gave the US "most favored nation" status in China, granting them any trading rights.

20

Caleb Cushing

American diplomat who negotiated the Treaty of Wanghia with China.

21

Matthew Perry

American negotiator to Japan who negotiated the Treaty of Kanagawa

22

Treaty of Kanagawa

American treaty with Japan that cracked their isolationism of several centuries.

23

Gadsden Purchase

Cession of land by Mexico to the US for $10 million that provided a viable railroad rout from Houston to Los Angeles

24

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Separated the unorganized territory of Nebraska into two parts, allowing each to chose their position on slavery by popular sovereignty, while repealing the Missouri Compromise