American Pageant, Volume 1: American Pageant Chapter 2 Flashcards

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Lord De La Warr

New governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610, immediately imposing a military regime in Jamestown and declaring war against the Powhatan Confederacy. Employed "Irish tactics" in which his troops burned houses and cornfields.



Indian princess, daughter of Powhatan; friend to Jamestown settlers, because of her influence, helped save the colony of Jamestown; married John Rolfe which led to a time of peace between the English and the Indians



Chief of the Powhatan Indians- father of Pocahantas


Handsome Lake

A Seneca, who led the most important revivalism among Native Americans, had a miraculous rebirth after years of alcoholism helped give him a special stature with his tribe. His message, which mostly spread to the remaining Iroquois, said that Native Americans should give up the nasty customs they developed from white culture, and restore the quality of the Indian world.


John Rolfe

Rolfe was an Englishman who became a colonist in the early settlement of Virginia. He is best known as the man who married the Native American, Pocahontas and took her to his homeland of England. Rolfe was also the savior of the Virginia colony by perfecting the tobacco industry in North America. Rolfe died in 1622, during one of many Indian attacks on the colony.


Walter Raleigh

Received a charter from Queen Elizabeth I to explore the American coastline. His ships landed on Roanoke, which became a "lost colony."


Lord Baltimore

Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.


James Oglethorpe

Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony.


Humphrey Gilbert

an English courtier whose interest in a Northwest Passage through North America to the Orient led him to an unsuccessful attempt to found an English colony in Newfoundland in the early 1580s. He was lost at sea on the return voyage.


Oliver Cromwell

Englishman; led the army to overthrow King Charles I and was successful in 1646. Cromwell ruled England in an almost democratic style until his death. His uprising drew English attention away from Jamestown and the other American colonies.


John Smith

John Smith took over the leadership role of the English Jamestown settlement in 1608. Most people in the settlement at the time were only there for personal gain and did not want to help strengthen the settlement. Smith therefore told the people, "people who do not work do not eat." His leadership saved the Jamestown settlement from collapsing.


John Wesley

Powerful evangelists of the Great Awakening. The helped spread the message of the revival and founded Methodism. With George Whitefield, he visited Georgia and other colonies in the 1730s.


Francis Drake

From 1577 to 1580, this explorer sailed to the Pacific to raid Spanish ships. He also explored the coast of California, then continued on to be the 2nd man to sail around the world.


William Penn

Penn, an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.


Henry VIII

(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.


Elizabeth I

Queen in the 1570s when Britain began interest in New World. She never made a major commitment to colonization. Full scale attempts at colonies didn't happen until after her death in 1603. Private enterprise more important than royal support.


Philip II

Supporter of Catholic Church, increased power for Spain with riches from the Americas, Absolute Monarchy, Divine Right.


James I

1606 chartered the virginia Company w/ authority to colonize N. America


Charles I

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649


Charles II

in 1660 ascended the English throne and created a string of new settlements: The Restoration Colonies; a generous but extravagant man who was always in debt, he rewarded 8 aritocratic supporters with a gift of the Carolinas, an area long claimed by Spain and populated by thousands of Indians.


Deganawidah and Hiawatha

Iroquois leaders who told warring Iroquois groups to stop fighting; co-founders of Iroquois Confederacy


George II

Became king of England in 1727, the 13th colony (Georgia) was named after him


joint-stock company

A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.


enclosure movement

in England in the 1700s, the process of taking over and fencing off public lands


House of Burgesses

1st Elected Legislative assembly in the New World est. in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.


Royal Charter

Royal document granting a specified group the right to form a colony and guaranteeing settlers their rights as English citizens


Slave Codes

laws that controlled the lives of enslaved african americans and denied them basic rights; "borrowed" from Barbados


Yeoman Farmer

in former times was free and cultivated his own land



an owner or owner-manage of land granted by the king used to refer to one of the lords propieter, who were granted carolina by king charles II



Person who settles on land without title or right: Early settlers in NC became squatters when they put their small farms on the new land. Raised tobacco on the land that they claimed & Tobacco later became a major cash crop for NC


Law of Primogeniture

eldest son receives all of the inheritance; forced younger sibling to look for wealth elsewhere (America)


Indentured Servant

Laborer who agreed to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America


Starving Time

The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as the "starving time" to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.


Sea Dogs

English sea captains authorized to raid Spanish ships and towns.


Surplus Population

remarkably mobile population in England due to footloose farmers from enclosure; went to New World to work and gain money


1st Anglo-Powhatan War

declared by Lord De La Warr when he took over Jamestown; marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe (first interracial union in Virginia) ended war in 1614


2nd Anglo-Powhatan War

Indians last effort to dislodge Virginians, they were defeated. Peace treaty of 1646 stopped any hope of creating native peoples into Virginia society or peace with coexisting.


Act of Toleration

A legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland: Protestants invaded the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland: protected the Catholics religion from Protestant rage of sharing the land: Maryland became the #1 colony to shelter Catholics in the New World.


Barbados Slave Code

The harsh system of laws governing African labor, first developed in barbados and later officially adopted by South Carolina in 1696


Virginia Company

Joint-Stock Company in London that received a charter for land in the new world. Charter guarantees new colonists same rights as people back in England.


English Restoration

(1660-1688) Restoration of the monarchy in England, marked the return of Charles II as king after the period of Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth, bishops were restored to Parliament, expansion of colonial trade


Act of Toleration

An act passed in Maryland 1649 that granted freedom of worship to all Christians; although it was enacted to protect the Catholic minority in Maryland, it was a benchmark of religious freedom in all the colonies. It did not extend to non-Christians, however.


Savannah Indians

In 1707 ended their alliance with the Carolinians and would have migrated to the backcountry of Maryland and Pennsylvania, but before they could leave were annihilated by the Indian tribes of coastal Carolina


Iroquois Confederacy

An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England.


Santa Fe

Served as capitol of the Spanish colonies in North America



First permanent French settlement in North America, founded by Samuel de Champlain



1st successful settlement in the VA colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. Settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. Population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Grew prosperous w/ shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export & cash crop


Charles Town

A city named for King Charles II in (what was then called) the Carolina colony; at the time, it was the busiest seaport in the South. It was a proponent of religious toleration.


Powhatan's Confederacy

Dominate native people James River area when English came 1607, saw English as allies at first to extend power over Indian rivals



The VA / MD Bay area that was the site of the earliest colonial settlement.


English Civil War

Conflict from 1640 to 1660; included religious and constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of a limited monarchy.



English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania