American Pageant Chapter 15

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1

Dorothea Dix

A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.

2

Stephen Foster

Made a valuable contribution to American folk music by capturing the plaintive spirit of the slaves. "Camptown Races"

3

James Russell Lowell

He was an American poet, essayist, diplomat, editor, and literary critic. He is remembered for his political satire, especially in the Billow Papers ( which condemned president Polk's policy for expanding slavery). He succeeded professor Henry Wadsworth Longfellow as teacher of modern languages at Harvard.

4

William Miller

A self-educated farmer from New York. Convinced from his studies that Christ will return in 1843, from his studies of the Scriptures.

5

Washington Irving

American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).

6

Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.

An anatomy teacher at Harvard Medical school who was regarded as a prominent poet, essayist, novelist, lecturer and wit from 1809-1894. Poem " the Last Leaf" in honor of the last "white Indian" at the Boston Tea Party, which really applied to himself.

7

Lucretia Mott

A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848

8

James Fenimore Cooper

American novelist who is best remembered for his novels of frontier life, such as The Last of the Mohicans (1826).

9

Elizabeth Blackwell

First woman to receive a medical degree in the U.S.

10

Horace Mann

Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education; "Father of the public school system"; a prominent proponent of public school reform, & set the standard for public schools throughout the nation; lengthened academic year; pro training & higher salaries to teachers

11

Peter Cartwright

Best known of the Methodist "circuit riders" (traveling frontier preachers). Sinewy servant of the Lord ranged for half-century from Tennessee to Illinois, calling upon sinners to repent.

12

Noah Webster

American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education; wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language.

13

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.

14

Sylvester Graham

Thought meat made you horny, notable for his emphasis on vegetarianism, and the temperance movement, as well as sexual and dietary habits; father of graham crackers

15

Edgar Allan Poe

American writer known especially for his macabre poems, such as "The Raven" (1845), and short stories, including "The Fall of the House of Usher" (1839).

16

Susan B. Anthony

social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation

17

Ralph Waldo Emerson

American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.

18

Nathaniel Hawthorne

Originally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti-transcendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. He wrote "The Scarlet Letter".

19

Robert Owen

British cotton manufacturer believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. Tested his theories at New Lanark, Scotland and New Harmony, Indiana, but failed

20

Henry David Thoreau

American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.

21

Herman Melville

American writer whose experiences at sea provided the factual basis of Moby-Dick (1851), considered among the greatest American novels

22

Charles G. Finney

This Presbyterian minister appealed to his audience's sense of emotion rather than their reason. His "fire and brimstone" sermons became commonplace in upstate New York, where listeners were instilled with the fear of Satan and an eternity in Hell. He insisted that parishioners could save themselves through good works and a steadfast faith in God.

23

William H. McGuffey

created the nations first and most widely used series of textbooks

24

Joseph Smith

Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.

25

Emma Willard

Early supporter of women's education, in 1818. She published Plan for Improving Education, which became the basis for public education of women in New York. 1821, she opened her own girls' school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women for college.

26

Walt Whitman

American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry. Wrote "O Captain! My Captain!".

27

John J. Audubon

Naturalist who painted wild fowl in their natural habitat. Birds of America received considerable popularity.

28

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet that was influenced somewhat by the transcendentalism occurring at the time. He was important in building the status of American literature.

29

Louisa May Alcott

American writer and reformer best known for her largely autobiographical novel Little Women (1868-1869).

30

Gilbert Stuart

A painter from Rhode Island who painted several portraits of Washington, creating a sort of idealized image of Washington.

31

Margaret Fuller

Social reformer, leader in women's movement and a transcendentalist. Edited "The Dial" which was the publication of the transcendentalists. It appealed to people who wanted "perfect freedom" "progress in philosophy and theology and hope that the future will not always be as the past".

32

Francis Parkman

Historian with defective eyes that forced him to write in darkness with the aid of a guiding machine; chronicled the struggle between France and England in colonial times for mastery of North America

33

Brigham Young

A Mormon leader who urged the Mormons to move farther west. They settled at the edge of the lonely desert near the Great Salt Lake.

34

Phineas T. Barnum

an American showman who is best remembered for his entertaining hoaxes and for founding the circus

35

Thomas Paine

Author of Common Sense

36

American Temperance Society

An organization group in which reformers are trying to help the ever present drink problem. This group was formed in Boston in 1826, and it was the first well-organized group created to deal with the problems drunkards had on societies well being, and the possible well-being of the individuals that are heavily influenced by alcohol.

37

Shakers

1840s; one of the first religious communal movements; kept men and women separate; failed due to lack of recruits

38

Maine Law

Passed in 1851 - first big step in the Temperance Movement - outlawed sale of alcohol except for medical purposes

39

Unitarianism

Late-eighteenth-century liberal offshoot of the New England Congregationalist Church; rejecting the Trinity, It professed the oneness of God and the goodness of rational man.

40

Second Great Awakening

A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.

41

Hudson River School

Founded by Thomas Cole, first native school of landscape painting in the U.S.; attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition, painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River

42

Women's Rights Convention

1848 gathering of women angered by their exclusion from an international antislavery meeting, they met at seneca falls NY.

43

Knickerbocker Group

group in New York that wrote literature and enabled America to boast for the first time of a literature that matched its magnificent landscapes

44

Burned-Over District

Popular name for Western New York, a region particularly swept up in the religious fervor of the Second Great Awakening

45

Declaration of Sentiments

Revision of the Declaration of Independence to include women and men (equal). It was the grand basis of attaining civil, social, political, and religious rights for women.

46

transcendentalism

A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.

47

Millerites

Seventh-Day Adventists who followed William Miller. They sold their possessions because they believed the Second Coming would be in 1843 or 1844, and waited for the world to end.

48

Oneida Community

A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.

49

Mormons

Church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT

50

Deism

A popular Enlightenment era belief that there is a God, but that God isn't involved in people's lives or in revealing truths to prophets.

51

lyceum

Aristotle's school of philosophy.

52

New Harmony

A utopian settlement in Indiana lasting from 1825 to 1827. It had 1,000 settlers, but a lack of authority caused it to break up.

53

Brook Farm

A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.

54

Federal Style

Early national style of architecture that borrowed from neoclassical models and emphasized symmetry, balance, and restraint.

55

Greek Revival

Inspired by the contemporary Greek independence movement, this building style, popular between 1820 and 1850, imitated ancient Greek structural forms in search of a democratic architectural vernacular.

56

minstrel shows

Consisted of white actors in blackface. Consisted of comedy routines, dances, and instrumental solos.

57

romanticisim

a literary and artistic movement in the 18th and 19th centuries. emphasized imagination, fancy, freedom, emotion, wildness, the beauty of the untamed natural work, the rights of the individual, the common man, and the attractiveness of pastoral life.

58

The American Scholar

(Ralph Waldo Emerson) talks about how america needs a scholar all other countries have one but the US. we need our own voice. he believes that anyone can be a scholar. doesn't like old books