American Pageant Chapters 33-35
London Economic Conference
A conference of 60 nations to organize a coordinated international attack on the global depression, especially by stabilizing the values of various nation's currencies.
Roosevelt's secretary of state he sent to the London conference. Designed trade agreements with Latin America.
Tydings Mcduffie Act
Provided for the independence of the Philippines after a twelve year period of economic and political tutelage.
Good Neighbor Policy
Roosevelt's policy of friendly relations with Latin America
Seventh Pan American Conference
The 1933 conference in Montevideo Uruguay in which the United States formally endorsed noninterventionism.
The millitary strongmen who came to power in Cuba in 1934, overthrowing the Platt Amendment bound government.
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
1934 act designed to lift American export trade from the dollar doldrums, aimed at both relief and recovery.
The philosophy in which loyalty to the state means everything
1935 agreement with Germany and Italy and Japan
Johnson Debt Default Act
Prevented Debtor nations from borrowing from the United States,
Veterans of Future Wars
Satirical Princeton group agitating for war benefits before they were drafted.
Headed a senate committee in 1934 to investigate the military industrial complex
The 1935, 1936, and 1937 laws which stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would go into affect.
General Francisco Franco
Led rebels who sought to overthrow the left leaning Republican government of Spain during the Spanish civil war. 1936-1939
Roosevelt called for quarantining Italy and Japan, possibly through economic embargoes.
Gave Hitler a green light to make war on western democracies.
Neutrality Act of 1939
Provided that European democracies might buy American War materials but only on a "cash and carry basis."
British Orater who nerved his people to fight off the fearful air bombings of their cities.
Created the nuclear bombs dropped on Japan.
FDR's four freedoms
Freedom of Speech Freedom of Worship Freedom from Want Freedom from Fear
GI bill of rights
Serviceman's readjustment, prevented unemployment for returning citizens
The policy of allowing Hitler to conquer some territories in hopes that he would leave alone others.
Americans were determined not to be suckered into another war.
"cash and carry basis"
European powers could buy American war materials but needed to transport them with their own ships.
The months following the collapse of Poland while France and Britain marked time. ended in April 1940 when Hitler overran his weaker neighbors Denmark and Norway.
Havana Conference of 1940
The United States agreed to share it's responsibility of upholding the Monroe Doctrine.
Committee to defend America by aiding the allies
propaganda group which advocated for helping Britain.
Charles A Lindbergh
Leader of the America First Committee.
America first Committee
Argued that America should focus on defending its own shore rather than helping Britain.
Senator Robert A Taft
A likely republican candidate fro 1940 but lost the nomination to Willkie. Was isolationist and opposed even the lend lease act.
Thomas E Dewey
A likely republican candidate for 1940 but lost the nomination to Willkie
Wendell L Willkie
The Republican candidate in 1940.
"No fourth term either"
chant of Willkie supporters
Lend Lease Act
allowed allied nations to but american war goods on a cash and carry basis
An unarmed American merchant torpedoed by Germany.
This nation fell to Germany in 1940
Although it previously signed a neutrality pact, this nation was invaded by Hitler.
Atlantic Conference 1941
Winston Churchill met with Roosevelt to discuss common problems. Produced the Atlantic Charter.
Agreement between Roosevelt and Churchill that stipulated there would be no territorial changes contrary to the wishes of inhabitants, affirmed the right of self determination, and a new league of nations.
"convoyed into war"
Lend lease shipments had to be protected by American ships, Britain did not have enough destroyers.
U.S destroyer attacked by a German submarine, causing Roosevelt to declare a shoot on sight policy.
US destroyer which engaged in battle with German U boats.
US destroyer sunk off the coast of southwestern Iceland.
December 7, 1941 the day when Japan bombed Pearl Harbor Hawaii.
the political party founded in Germany in 1919 and brought to power by Hitler in 1933
1936; close cooperation between Italy and Germany, and soon Japan joined; resulted from Hitler; who had supported Ethiopia and Italy, he overcame Mussolini's lingering doubts about the Nazis.
Washington Naval Conference
1921 - president harding invited delegates from Europe and Japan, and they agreed to limit production of war ships, to not attack each other's possessions, and to respect China's independence
Attacked by Italy (Mussolini), seeking power and glory in Africa
Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.
not selling weapons to a country
Quarantine Speech (1937)
FDR encouraged democracies to quarantine their opponents (economic embargoes); criticized by isolationists
Panay Incident (1937)
Japanese bombers engaged in war with China bombed and sank the marked U.S. gunboat Panay and three Standard Oil ships, which were evacuating American officials from China. Japan accepted responsibilities of bombing the ships, made a formal apology and promised indemnities later set at $2 million.
Hitler defied the Versailles Treaty when he invaded this demilitarized zone
appeasement; Hitler promised that his last territorial demand was the Sudeten territory from Czechoslovakia
September 1, 1939
Germany invades Poland
A city in northern France on the North Sea where in World War II (1940) 330,000 Allied troops had to be evacuated from the beaches at Dunkirk in a desperate retreat under enemy fire.
September 6, 1940, under this measure, America's first peacetime DRAFT was initiated-provision was made for training 1.2 million troops and 800,000 reserves each year.
Battle of Britain (1940)
series of air strikes on Britain by Germany from August to November of 1940 in an attempt to gain air supremacy. Hitler fails to take Britain; British RAF decimate Nazi pilots. Called the Blitz
Destroyers for Bases
Roosevelt's compromise for helping Britain as he could not sell Britain US destroyers without defying the Neutrality Act; Britain received 50 old but still serviceable US destroyers in exchange for giving the US the right to build military bases on British Islands in the Caribbean.
Pearl Harbor, 1941
The Japanese wanted to continue their expansion within Asia in the late 1930s and early 40s but the US had placed an extremely restrictive embargo on Japan in the hopes of curbing Japan's aggression. The Japanese decided to launch a surprise attack against the United States at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on Dec. 7, 1941 (a "day that will live in infamy" according to the famous words of FDR). The United States abandoned its policy of isolationism and entered WWII by declaring war on Japan the following day.
V-J (Victory in Japan) Day
Celebrated on August 15, 1945 after the dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan; the celebrations continued through the official end of WWII on September 2, 1945 when Japan officially surrendered
May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered
Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)
33rd President: a. Atomic bombs dropped (1945) b. Yalta Conference (1945)
July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.
D-Day (June 6, 1944)
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower
led the Allied invasion of North African and planned and executed the D-Day invasion at Normandy and the Battle of the Bulge
(1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.
Battle of Midway
1942 World War II battle between the United States and Japan, a turning point in the war in the Pacific
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
a nonviolent interracial group founded in 1942 by James Farmer to work against segregation in Northern cities
Fair Employment Practices Commission
FDR issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work It guaranteed the employment of 2 million black workers in the war factories.
United States labor agents recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers from Mexico. The program stimulated emigration for Mexico.
Women's Army Corps
Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Service in the Navy
Women serving in the coast guard.
Smith Conally Anti Strike Act 1943
Authorized the federal government to seize and operate tied up industries. Washington took over coal mines and railroads
National War Labor Board (NWLB)
Government agency that imposed ceilings on wage increases; contested by many labor unions.
Office of Price Administration
Instituted in 1942, this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation, profiteering, hoarding and price administration. The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas, oil, butter, meat, sugar, coffee and shoes in order to support the war effort and prevent inflation.
War Production Board (WPB)
a government agency set up to oversee production of war materials during World War II
Executive Order 9066
Feb. 19, 1942; 112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes & businesses, 600K more renounced citizenship; demonstrated fear of Japanese invasion
ABC-1 agreement (1941)
An agreement between Britain and the United States developed at a conference in Washington, D.C., between January 29-March 27, 1941, that should the United States enter World War II, the two nations and their allies would coordinate their military planning, making a priority of protecting the British Commonwealth. That would mean "getting Germany first" in the Atlantic and the European theater and fighting more defensively on other military fronts.
War Refugee Board (WRB)
Federal agency created in 1944 to try to help people threatened with murder by the Nazis
Abraham Lincoln Brigade
Idealistic American volunteers who served in the Spanish Civil War, defending Spanish republican forces from the fascist General Francisco Franco's nationalist coup. Some 3,000 Americans served alongside volunteers from other countries.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President - He began New Deal programs to help the nation out of the Great Depression, and he was the nation's leader during most of WWII
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
A New York social worker who headed the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Civil Works Administration. He helped grant over 3 billion dollars to the states wages for work projects, and granted thousands of jobs for jobless Americans.
She was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition
A radio priest who was anti-Semetic and anti-New Deal. He catered away some support from FDR.
Immensely popular governor and senator of Louisiana; provided tax favors, roads, schools, free textbooks, charity hospitals, and improved public services for Louisiana citizens; cost: corruption and personal dictatorship; formed national organization (Share Our Wealth)
American physician and social reformer whose plan for a government-sponsored old-age pension was a precursor of the Social Security Act of 1935.
A researcher who argued that the sexual socialization of youngsters in many traditional societies was a calm and non stressful process in societies in which sexual experimentation was treated openly. Prominent 1930s social scientist who argued that each culture produced its own type of personality
novelist who won Nobel Peace prize, advanced humanitarian causes. "Americans in China"
American novelist who wrote "The Grapes of Wrath". (1939) A story of Dust bowl victims who travel to California to look for a better life.
Mary McLeod Bethune
United States educator who worked to improve race relations and educational opportunities for Black Americans (1875-1955)
Interior Secretary under the Roosevelt administration. He organized liberal Republicans for Roosevelt in 1932.
George W. Norris
US Senator from Nebraska responsible for the REA, TVA, 22nd Amendment and the Nebraska Unicameral
John L. Lewis
He was a miner known for creating the United Mine Workers. He helped found the CIO and was responsible for the Fair Labor Standards Act.
John Maynard Keynes
English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946)
Alfred M. Landon
Republican who carried only two states in a futile campaign against "the champ" in 1936
"the forgotten man"
A nickname given to everyday Americans people by FDR during the depression
equality, as in amount, status, or value
President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insurance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life. RELIEF, RECOVERY, AND REFORM
Group of expert policy advisers who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end The Great Depression
The special session of Congress that Roosevelt called to launch his New Deal programs. The special session lasted about three months.
the "three Rs"
Relief, Reform, Recovery
(Banking Act of 1933) - Established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and included banking reforms, some designed to control speculation. Repealed in 1999, opening the door to scandals involving banks and stock investment companies.
Civilian Conservation Corps
Hired young, unemployed people to do restoration projects throughout the country, employed over 3 million people.
Works Progress Administration
May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
National Recovery Act
A New Deal legislation that focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. This pumped cash into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition and created this.
Stated that congress could not delegate legislative powers to the executive. Also known as the sick chicken decision because of the involvement of a fowl business in new york.
Public Works Administration
1935 Created for both industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. Headed by the Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery and spent $4 billion on thousands of projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways.
Agricultural Adjustment Act
(FDR) 1933 and 1938 , Helped farmers meet mortgages. Unconstitutional because the government was paying the farmers to waste 1/3 of there products. Created by Congress in 1933 as part of the New Deal this agency attempted to restrict agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies to take land out of production.
"Every Man a King"
the slogan of the share our wealth movement of Louisiana senator Huey Long
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
Securities and Exchange Commission
A government commission created by Congress to regulate the securities markets and protect investors. In addition to regulation and protection, it also monitors the corporate takeovers in the U.S.
Tennessee Valley Authority
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
Federal Housing Administration
A federal agency established in 1943 to increase home ownership by providing an insurance program to safeguard the lender against the risk of nonpayment.
Social Security Act
The act passed by FDR that provided for immediate relief for poor elderly; national Old-Age and survivors insurance, a shared federal-state plan of unemployment insurance, and public assistance programs (AFDC)
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
National Labor Relations Board
Act establishing federal guarantee of right to organize trade unions and collective bargaining.
Congress of Industrial Organizations
A federation of labor union for all unskilled workers. It provided a national labor union for unskilled workers, unlike the AFL, which limited itself to skilled workers.
Work stoppage in which workers shut down all machines and refuse to leave a factory until their demands are met.
Indian Reorganization Act
1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
Conservatives who did not agree with Roosevelt, they wanted government to let business alone and play a less active role in the economy. Members of this organization complained that the New Deal interfered too much with business and with people's lives.
an alignment of interest groups and voting blocks used to remain Democratic party in power-labor unions, minority groups involved
President FDR's failed 1937 attempt to increase the number of US Supreme Court Justices from 9 to 15 in order to save his 2nd New Deal programs from constitutional challenges
Belief in aggressive government intervention to combat recession & promote economic growth, especially by massive federal spending ("stimulus")
Bank Holiday 1933
Franklin D Roosevelt declared that all banks were to be closed on March 6, 1933
Emergency Banking Relief Act of 1933
March 6, 1933 - FDR ordered a bank holiday. Many banks were failing because they had too little capital, made too many planning errors, and had poor management. The Emergency Banking Relief Act provided for government inspection, which restored public confidence in the banks.
radio broadcasts made by FDR to the American people to explain his initiatives
A monetary system in which paper money and coins are equal to the value of a certain amount of gold
Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration: combined cash relief to needy families with work relief
Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II
(Home Owners' Loan Corporation) Relief and Recovery. Helped home-owners and mortgage companies. government payed companies for the home-owners so they could keep their homes and pay off w/ lower interest and longer time.
Civil Works Adminstration: emergency work relief program, put more than four million people to work during the winter of 1933-34
Share Our Wealth Program
Huey Long's economic program that would have eliminated poverty by giving every family a minimum income; the program also called for providing an old-age pension to elderly people
Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
United States anthropologist noted for her claims about adolescence and sexual behavior in Polynesian cultures (1901-1978)
National Recovery Administration: established and adminstered a system of industrial codes to control production, prices, labor relations, and trade practices
Public Works Administration. Part of Roosevelts New Deal programs. Put people to work building or improving public buildings like schools, post offices,etc.
Repeal of Prohibition
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
Replaced the AAA in which farmers were paid to cut production of soil depleting crops and they were also given reward s for practicing good soil conservation methods
Second Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938
replaced National Recovery Administration (Agricultural Adjustment Act), it paid farmers to plant crops like soybeans or leave the land fallow
The Grapes of Wrath
John Steinbeck's novel about a struggling farm family during the Great Depression. Gave a face to the violence and exploitation that migrant farm workers faced in America
Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act
It made possible a suspension of mortgage foreclosures for 5 years. It was struck down in 1935 by the Supreme Court.
Resettlement Administration (RA)
RELIEF under Brain Trust, Rexford Tugwell, provided loans to sharecroppers, tenants, and small farmers. It also established federal camps where migrant workers could ﬁnd decent housing.
Head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs who introduced the Indian New Deal and pushed congress to pass Indian Reorganization Act
Federal Securities Act
(FDR) 1933, 1934, , required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds
Securities and Exchange Commission
Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935
an act that took aim at financial corruption in public utilities industry, outlawing the ownership of utilities by multiple holding companies
(Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.
The Federal Housing Administration gave both the construction industry and homeowners a boost by insuring bank loans for building new houses and repairing old ones
Congress of Industrial Organizations. proposed by John L. Lewis in 1932. a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955.
Fair Labor Standards Act
1938 act which provided for a minimum wage and restricted shipments of goods produced with child labor
Congress begins on January 30th; President starts on January 20th "Lame-duck" Amendment
"Roosevelt Recession" of 1937
1937 economic downturn caused by sound fiscal policy due to cut spending and higher taxes
Hatch Act (1939)
Permitted government employees to vote in government elections but forbade them from participating in partisan politics