American Pageant Chapters 33-35

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American Pageant, Volume 1
Chapters 33, 34
updated 6 months ago by apush_it
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1

London Economic Conference

A conference of 60 nations to organize a coordinated international attack on the global depression, especially by stabilizing the values of various nation's currencies.

2

Cordell Hull

Roosevelt's secretary of state he sent to the London conference. Designed trade agreements with Latin America.

3

Tydings Mcduffie Act

Provided for the independence of the Philippines after a twelve year period of economic and political tutelage.

4

Good Neighbor Policy

Roosevelt's policy of friendly relations with Latin America

5

Seventh Pan American Conference

The 1933 conference in Montevideo Uruguay in which the United States formally endorsed noninterventionism.

6

Fulgencio Batista

The millitary strongmen who came to power in Cuba in 1934, overthrowing the Platt Amendment bound government.

7

Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act

1934 act designed to lift American export trade from the dollar doldrums, aimed at both relief and recovery.

8

Totalitarianism

The philosophy in which loyalty to the state means everything

9

Joseph Stalin

Russian dicater

10

Benito Mussolini

Italian Dictater

11

Tripartite Pact

1935 agreement with Germany and Italy and Japan

12

Johnson Debt Default Act

Prevented Debtor nations from borrowing from the United States,

13

Veterans of Future Wars

Satirical Princeton group agitating for war benefits before they were drafted.

14

Gerald Nye

Headed a senate committee in 1934 to investigate the military industrial complex

15

Neutrality Acts

The 1935, 1936, and 1937 laws which stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would go into affect.

16

General Francisco Franco

Led rebels who sought to overthrow the left leaning Republican government of Spain during the Spanish civil war. 1936-1939

17

Quarantine Speech

Roosevelt called for quarantining Italy and Japan, possibly through economic embargoes.

18

Hitler-Stalin Pact

Gave Hitler a green light to make war on western democracies.

19

Neutrality Act of 1939

Provided that European democracies might buy American War materials but only on a "cash and carry basis."

20

Winston Churchill

British Orater who nerved his people to fight off the fearful air bombings of their cities.

21

Manhattan project

Created the nuclear bombs dropped on Japan.

22

FDR's four freedoms

Freedom of Speech Freedom of Worship Freedom from Want Freedom from Fear

23

GI bill of rights

Serviceman's readjustment, prevented unemployment for returning citizens

24

Appeasement

The policy of allowing Hitler to conquer some territories in hopes that he would leave alone others.

25

"suckers"

Americans were determined not to be suckered into another war.

26

"cash and carry basis"

European powers could buy American war materials but needed to transport them with their own ships.

27

"phony war"

The months following the collapse of Poland while France and Britain marked time. ended in April 1940 when Hitler overran his weaker neighbors Denmark and Norway.

28

Havana Conference of 1940

The United States agreed to share it's responsibility of upholding the Monroe Doctrine.

29

Committee to defend America by aiding the allies

propaganda group which advocated for helping Britain.

30

Charles A Lindbergh

Leader of the America First Committee.

31

America first Committee

Argued that America should focus on defending its own shore rather than helping Britain.

32

Senator Robert A Taft

A likely republican candidate fro 1940 but lost the nomination to Willkie. Was isolationist and opposed even the lend lease act.

33

Thomas E Dewey

A likely republican candidate for 1940 but lost the nomination to Willkie

34

Wendell L Willkie

The Republican candidate in 1940.

35

"No fourth term either"

chant of Willkie supporters

36

Burton Wheeler

Isolationist senator

37

Lend Lease Act

allowed allied nations to but american war goods on a cash and carry basis

38

Robin Moor

An unarmed American merchant torpedoed by Germany.

39

France

This nation fell to Germany in 1940

40

Soviet Union

Although it previously signed a neutrality pact, this nation was invaded by Hitler.

41

Atlantic Conference 1941

Winston Churchill met with Roosevelt to discuss common problems. Produced the Atlantic Charter.

42

Atlantic Charter

Agreement between Roosevelt and Churchill that stipulated there would be no territorial changes contrary to the wishes of inhabitants, affirmed the right of self determination, and a new league of nations.

43

"convoyed into war"

Lend lease shipments had to be protected by American ships, Britain did not have enough destroyers.

44

Greer

U.S destroyer attacked by a German submarine, causing Roosevelt to declare a shoot on sight policy.

45

Kearny

US destroyer which engaged in battle with German U boats.

46

Reuben James

US destroyer sunk off the coast of southwestern Iceland.

47

Black Sunday

December 7, 1941 the day when Japan bombed Pearl Harbor Hawaii.

48

Nazi Party

the political party founded in Germany in 1919 and brought to power by Hitler in 1933

49

Rome-Berlin Axis

1936; close cooperation between Italy and Germany, and soon Japan joined; resulted from Hitler; who had supported Ethiopia and Italy, he overcame Mussolini's lingering doubts about the Nazis.

50

Washington Naval Conference

1921 - president harding invited delegates from Europe and Japan, and they agreed to limit production of war ships, to not attack each other's possessions, and to respect China's independence

51

Ethiopia 1935

Attacked by Italy (Mussolini), seeking power and glory in Africa

52

Spanish Civil War

In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.

53

arms embargo

not selling weapons to a country

54

Quarantine Speech (1937)

FDR encouraged democracies to quarantine their opponents (economic embargoes); criticized by isolationists

55

Panay Incident (1937)

Japanese bombers engaged in war with China bombed and sank the marked U.S. gunboat Panay and three Standard Oil ships, which were evacuating American officials from China. Japan accepted responsibilities of bombing the ships, made a formal apology and promised indemnities later set at $2 million.

56

Rhineland 1936

Hitler defied the Versailles Treaty when he invaded this demilitarized zone

57

Sudetenland (1938)

appeasement; Hitler promised that his last territorial demand was the Sudeten territory from Czechoslovakia

58

September 1, 1939

Germany invades Poland

59

Dunkirk

A city in northern France on the North Sea where in World War II (1940) 330,000 Allied troops had to be evacuated from the beaches at Dunkirk in a desperate retreat under enemy fire.

60

Conscription Law

September 6, 1940, under this measure, America's first peacetime DRAFT was initiated-provision was made for training 1.2 million troops and 800,000 reserves each year.

61

Battle of Britain (1940)

series of air strikes on Britain by Germany from August to November of 1940 in an attempt to gain air supremacy. Hitler fails to take Britain; British RAF decimate Nazi pilots. Called the Blitz

62

Destroyers for Bases

Roosevelt's compromise for helping Britain as he could not sell Britain US destroyers without defying the Neutrality Act; Britain received 50 old but still serviceable US destroyers in exchange for giving the US the right to build military bases on British Islands in the Caribbean.

63

Pearl Harbor, 1941

The Japanese wanted to continue their expansion within Asia in the late 1930s and early 40s but the US had placed an extremely restrictive embargo on Japan in the hopes of curbing Japan's aggression. The Japanese decided to launch a surprise attack against the United States at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on Dec. 7, 1941 (a "day that will live in infamy" according to the famous words of FDR). The United States abandoned its policy of isolationism and entered WWII by declaring war on Japan the following day.

64

V-J (Victory in Japan) Day

Celebrated on August 15, 1945 after the dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan; the celebrations continued through the official end of WWII on September 2, 1945 when Japan officially surrendered

65

V-E Day

May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered

66

Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)

33rd President: a. Atomic bombs dropped (1945) b. Yalta Conference (1945)

67

Potsdam Conference

July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.

68

D-Day (June 6, 1944)

June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

69

General Dwight D. Eisenhower

led the Allied invasion of North African and planned and executed the D-Day invasion at Normandy and the Battle of the Bulge

70

Douglas MacArthur

(1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.

71

Battle of Midway

1942 World War II battle between the United States and Japan, a turning point in the war in the Pacific

72

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

a nonviolent interracial group founded in 1942 by James Farmer to work against segregation in Northern cities

73

Fair Employment Practices Commission

FDR issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work It guaranteed the employment of 2 million black workers in the war factories.

74

Bracero Program

United States labor agents recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers from Mexico. The program stimulated emigration for Mexico.

75

WAC

Women's Army Corps

76

WAVES

Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Service in the Navy

77

SPARS

Women serving in the coast guard.

78

Smith Conally Anti Strike Act 1943

Authorized the federal government to seize and operate tied up industries. Washington took over coal mines and railroads

79

National War Labor Board (NWLB)

Government agency that imposed ceilings on wage increases; contested by many labor unions.

80

Office of Price Administration

Instituted in 1942, this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation, profiteering, hoarding and price administration. The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas, oil, butter, meat, sugar, coffee and shoes in order to support the war effort and prevent inflation.

81

War Production Board (WPB)

a government agency set up to oversee production of war materials during World War II

82

Executive Order 9066

Feb. 19, 1942; 112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes & businesses, 600K more renounced citizenship; demonstrated fear of Japanese invasion

83

ABC-1 agreement (1941)

An agreement between Britain and the United States developed at a conference in Washington, D.C., between January 29-March 27, 1941, that should the United States enter World War II, the two nations and their allies would coordinate their military planning, making a priority of protecting the British Commonwealth. That would mean "getting Germany first" in the Atlantic and the European theater and fighting more defensively on other military fronts.

84

War Refugee Board (WRB)

Federal agency created in 1944 to try to help people threatened with murder by the Nazis

85

Abraham Lincoln Brigade

Idealistic American volunteers who served in the Spanish Civil War, defending Spanish republican forces from the fascist General Francisco Franco's nationalist coup. Some 3,000 Americans served alongside volunteers from other countries.

86

Franklin D. Roosevelt

32nd US President - He began New Deal programs to help the nation out of the Great Depression, and he was the nation's leader during most of WWII

87

Eleanor Roosevelt

FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women

88

Harry Hopkins

A New York social worker who headed the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Civil Works Administration. He helped grant over 3 billion dollars to the states wages for work projects, and granted thousands of jobs for jobless Americans.

89

Frances Perkins

She was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition

90

Charles Coughlin

A radio priest who was anti-Semetic and anti-New Deal. He catered away some support from FDR.

91

Huey Long

Immensely popular governor and senator of Louisiana; provided tax favors, roads, schools, free textbooks, charity hospitals, and improved public services for Louisiana citizens; cost: corruption and personal dictatorship; formed national organization (Share Our Wealth)

92

Francis Townsend

American physician and social reformer whose plan for a government-sponsored old-age pension was a precursor of the Social Security Act of 1935.

93

Ruth Benedict

A researcher who argued that the sexual socialization of youngsters in many traditional societies was a calm and non stressful process in societies in which sexual experimentation was treated openly. Prominent 1930s social scientist who argued that each culture produced its own type of personality

94

Pearl Buck

novelist who won Nobel Peace prize, advanced humanitarian causes. "Americans in China"

95

John Steinbeck

American novelist who wrote "The Grapes of Wrath". (1939) A story of Dust bowl victims who travel to California to look for a better life.

96

Mary McLeod Bethune

United States educator who worked to improve race relations and educational opportunities for Black Americans (1875-1955)

97

Harold Ickes

Interior Secretary under the Roosevelt administration. He organized liberal Republicans for Roosevelt in 1932.

98

George W. Norris

US Senator from Nebraska responsible for the REA, TVA, 22nd Amendment and the Nebraska Unicameral

99

John L. Lewis

He was a miner known for creating the United Mine Workers. He helped found the CIO and was responsible for the Fair Labor Standards Act.

100

John Maynard Keynes

English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946)

101

Alfred M. Landon

Republican who carried only two states in a futile campaign against "the champ" in 1936

102

"the forgotten man"

A nickname given to everyday Americans people by FDR during the depression

103

parity

equality, as in amount, status, or value

104

New Deal

President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insurance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life. RELIEF, RECOVERY, AND REFORM

105

Brain Trust

Group of expert policy advisers who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end The Great Depression

106

Hundred Days

The special session of Congress that Roosevelt called to launch his New Deal programs. The special session lasted about three months.

107

the "three Rs"

Relief, Reform, Recovery

108

Glass-Steagall Act

(Banking Act of 1933) - Established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and included banking reforms, some designed to control speculation. Repealed in 1999, opening the door to scandals involving banks and stock investment companies.

109

Civilian Conservation Corps

Hired young, unemployed people to do restoration projects throughout the country, employed over 3 million people.

110

Works Progress Administration

May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.

111

National Recovery Act

A New Deal legislation that focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. This pumped cash into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition and created this.

112

Schechter case

Stated that congress could not delegate legislative powers to the executive. Also known as the sick chicken decision because of the involvement of a fowl business in new york.

113

Public Works Administration

1935 Created for both industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. Headed by the Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery and spent $4 billion on thousands of projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways.

114

Agricultural Adjustment Act

(FDR) 1933 and 1938 , Helped farmers meet mortgages. Unconstitutional because the government was paying the farmers to waste 1/3 of there products. Created by Congress in 1933 as part of the New Deal this agency attempted to restrict agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies to take land out of production.

115

"Every Man a King"

the slogan of the share our wealth movement of Louisiana senator Huey Long

116

Dust Bowl

Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.

117

Securities and Exchange Commission

A government commission created by Congress to regulate the securities markets and protect investors. In addition to regulation and protection, it also monitors the corporate takeovers in the U.S.

118

Tennessee Valley Authority

A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.

119

Federal Housing Administration

A federal agency established in 1943 to increase home ownership by providing an insurance program to safeguard the lender against the risk of nonpayment.

120

Social Security Act

The act passed by FDR that provided for immediate relief for poor elderly; national Old-Age and survivors insurance, a shared federal-state plan of unemployment insurance, and public assistance programs (AFDC)

121

Wagner Act

1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.

122

National Labor Relations Board

Act establishing federal guarantee of right to organize trade unions and collective bargaining.

123

Congress of Industrial Organizations

A federation of labor union for all unskilled workers. It provided a national labor union for unskilled workers, unlike the AFL, which limited itself to skilled workers.

124

sitdown strike

Work stoppage in which workers shut down all machines and refuse to leave a factory until their demands are met.

125

Indian Reorganization Act

1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.

126

Liberty League

Conservatives who did not agree with Roosevelt, they wanted government to let business alone and play a less active role in the economy. Members of this organization complained that the New Deal interfered too much with business and with people's lives.

127

Roosevelt coalition

an alignment of interest groups and voting blocks used to remain Democratic party in power-labor unions, minority groups involved

128

Court-packing plan

President FDR's failed 1937 attempt to increase the number of US Supreme Court Justices from 9 to 15 in order to save his 2nd New Deal programs from constitutional challenges

129

Keynesianism

Belief in aggressive government intervention to combat recession & promote economic growth, especially by massive federal spending ("stimulus")

130

Bank Holiday 1933

Franklin D Roosevelt declared that all banks were to be closed on March 6, 1933

131

Emergency Banking Relief Act of 1933

March 6, 1933 - FDR ordered a bank holiday. Many banks were failing because they had too little capital, made too many planning errors, and had poor management. The Emergency Banking Relief Act provided for government inspection, which restored public confidence in the banks.

132

Fireside Chats

radio broadcasts made by FDR to the American people to explain his initiatives

133

Gold Standard

A monetary system in which paper money and coins are equal to the value of a certain amount of gold

134

CCC

Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.

135

FERA

Federal Emergency Relief Administration: combined cash relief to needy families with work relief

136

AAA

Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II

137

HOLC

(Home Owners' Loan Corporation) Relief and Recovery. Helped home-owners and mortgage companies. government payed companies for the home-owners so they could keep their homes and pay off w/ lower interest and longer time.

138

CWA

Civil Works Adminstration: emergency work relief program, put more than four million people to work during the winter of 1933-34

139

Share Our Wealth Program

Huey Long's economic program that would have eliminated poverty by giving every family a minimum income; the program also called for providing an old-age pension to elderly people

140

WPA

Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII

141

Margaret Mead

United States anthropologist noted for her claims about adolescence and sexual behavior in Polynesian cultures (1901-1978)

142

NRA

National Recovery Administration: established and adminstered a system of industrial codes to control production, prices, labor relations, and trade practices

143

PWA

Public Works Administration. Part of Roosevelts New Deal programs. Put people to work building or improving public buildings like schools, post offices,etc.

144

21st Amendment

Repeal of Prohibition

145

Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act

Replaced the AAA in which farmers were paid to cut production of soil depleting crops and they were also given reward s for practicing good soil conservation methods

146

Second Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938

replaced National Recovery Administration (Agricultural Adjustment Act), it paid farmers to plant crops like soybeans or leave the land fallow

147

The Grapes of Wrath

John Steinbeck's novel about a struggling farm family during the Great Depression. Gave a face to the violence and exploitation that migrant farm workers faced in America

148

Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act

It made possible a suspension of mortgage foreclosures for 5 years. It was struck down in 1935 by the Supreme Court.

149

Resettlement Administration (RA)

RELIEF under Brain Trust, Rexford Tugwell, provided loans to sharecroppers, tenants, and small farmers. It also established federal camps where migrant workers could find decent housing.

150

John Collier

Head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs who introduced the Indian New Deal and pushed congress to pass Indian Reorganization Act

151

Federal Securities Act

(FDR) 1933, 1934, , required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds

152

SEC

Securities and Exchange Commission

153

Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935

an act that took aim at financial corruption in public utilities industry, outlawing the ownership of utilities by multiple holding companies

154

TVA

(Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.

155

FHA

The Federal Housing Administration gave both the construction industry and homeowners a boost by insuring bank loans for building new houses and repairing old ones

156

CIO

Congress of Industrial Organizations. proposed by John L. Lewis in 1932. a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955.

157

Fair Labor Standards Act

1938 act which provided for a minimum wage and restricted shipments of goods produced with child labor

158

20th Amendment

Congress begins on January 30th; President starts on January 20th "Lame-duck" Amendment

159

"Roosevelt Recession" of 1937

1937 economic downturn caused by sound fiscal policy due to cut spending and higher taxes

160

Hatch Act (1939)

Permitted government employees to vote in government elections but forbade them from participating in partisan politics