American Pageant Chapter 3

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1

John Calvin

1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.

2

Anne Hutchinson

Puritan dissenter banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony who fled to Rhode Island in 1638

3

Roger Williams

English clergyman and colonist who was expelled from Massachusetts for criticizing Puritanism

4

Henry Hudson

English navigator who discovered the Hudson River

5

William Bradford

long-time governor of Plymouth Colony, wrote "Of Plymouth Plantation"

6

Peter Stuyvesant

the last Dutch colonial administrator of New Netherland

7

William Laud

Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I in England. He tried to force the Scottish to use the English Book of Common Prayer. He was later executed by Parliament during the English Civil War.

8

Thomas Hooker

A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.

9

William Penn

Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718)

10

John Winthrop

1588-1649 First governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.

11

King Philip

English name for Metacon who forged an alliance among Indians to try to end the spread of English settlement

12

John Cotton

Criticized the Church of England, fled to Massachusetts Bay Colony, defended government's duty to enforce religious rules

13

Sir Edmund Andros

Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England

14

Gustavus Adolphus

king of Sweden whose victories in battle made Sweden a European power

15

William and Mary

King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.

16

Massasoit

Wampanoag leader who who aided the Pilgrims (1580-1661)

17

Fernando Gorges

was an early English colonial entrepreneur and founder of the now state of Maine

18

Myles Standish

English colonist in America

19

Martin Luther

German theologian who led the Reformation

20

Michael Wigglesworth

New England clergyman who wrote the popular poem "Day of Doom", which told the horrifying fate of the damned

21

Squanto

Native American who helped with relation between the natives and the Pilgrims.

22

Franchise

a statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (especially the rights of citizenship and the right to vote)

23

Predestination

previous determination as if by destiny or fate

24

Conversion

a spiritual enlightenment causing a person to lead a new life

25

Covenant

(Bible) an agreement between God and his people in which God makes certain promises and requires certain behavior from them in return

26

Antinomianism

the theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture)

27

Sumptuary Laws

these regulated the dress of different classes forbidding people from wearing clothes of their social superiors

28

Salutary neglect

An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies

29

Passive resistance

peaceful resistance to a government by fasting or refusing to cooperate

30

City upon a hill

name for Mass. Bay Colony coined by Winthrop to describe how their colony should serve as a model of excellence for future generations

31

Protestant Reformation

a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches

32

Pilgrims

some one who journeys to a sacred place as an act of religious devotion

33

New England confederation

1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.

34

Calvinism

the theological system of John Calvin and his followers emphasizing omnipotence of God and salvation by grace alone

35

Massachusetts Bay Company

joint-stock company chartered by Charles I in 1629. It was controlled by Non-Separatists who took the charter with them to New England and, in effect, converted it into a written constitution for the colony.

36

Dominion of New England

1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros

37

Institutes of Christian Religion

This was the work by John Calvin that described to the world the ideology of John Calvin

38

Navigation laws

Promoted English shipping and control colonial trade; made Americans ship all non-British items to England before going to America

39

Glorious Revolution

the revolution against James II

40

Puritans

Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.

41

General court

a Puritan representative assembly elected by the freemen; they assisted the governor; this was the early form of Puritan democracy in the 1600's

42

Dutch West India Company

Trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in the Americas and Africa.

43

Separatists

People who wanted to have a separate, or different church. Also known as Pilgrims.

44

Bible commonwealth

name for the Massachusetts Bay colony that refers to its tax supported churches and visible saints.

45

Quakers

a Christian sect founded by George Fox about 1660

46

Mayflower

the ship in which the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1620

47

Protestant ethic

Sociological term used to define the Calvinist belief in hard work to illustrate selection in elite group

48

Mayflower compact

a document written by the Pilgrims establishing themselves as a political society and setting guidelines for self-government

49

fundamental orders

The constitution of the Connecticut River colony drawn up in 1639, it established a government controlled in democratic style by the "substantial" citizens.

50

french huguenots

French protestants who came to the New World to escape religious prosecution in France

51

Scottish Presbyterians

one group of Puritan American settlers who were Calvinists

52

Dutchification

the traits and culture of the Dutch being imprinted into the young minds of the English Separatists

53

Plymouth Bay

Place where pilgrims finally settled

54

Congregational Church

a Protestant denomination holding that each individual congregation should be self-governing

55

Pequot War

The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.

56

Dutch Gold Age

Age when the Dutch came to the new world for gold

57

New Netherland

a Dutch colony in North America along the Hudson and lower Delaware rivers although the colony centered in New Amsterdam

58

New Amsterdam

a settlement established by the Dutch near the mouth of Hudson River and the southern end of Manhattan Island

59

New Sweden

Swedish fur-trading community established with the assistance of the Dutch on the Delaware River in 1638 and absorbed by New Netherland in 1655

60

Penn's Woodland

literal translation of "Pennsylvania"; what William Penn named his colony, but in honor of his father, not himself

61

Great Migration

when more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times