American Pageant Chapter 14

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1

John Adams

(1797-1801) He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself

2

Thomas Jefferson

He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.

3

Alexander Hamilton

1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.

4

Henry Knox

Was the first secretary of war; came to power in 1789; was the first to be entrusted with the infant army and navy.

5

John Jay

American delegate who signed Treaty of Paris; New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated with Britain and Spain on behalf of the Confederation; he later became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court and negotiated the Jay Treaty

6

Citizen Edmond Genet

French ambassador sent to US during French Rev. to encourage Americans to send out privateers against Spain and Britain, as well as organizing a militia to assault Spanish-sympathizers in Florida. All actions he takes are condemned by US gov., including Thomas Jefferson, because they threaten to bring US out of neutrality.

7

Talleyrand

French representative at the Congress of Vienna and limited the demands of other countries upon the French

8

Matthew Lyon

Was one of the famous arrestees of the Alien and Sedition Acts. His crime was spitting at a Federalist's face and criticizing Adam's policies

9

James Madison

Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812, author of Bill of Rights, Federalist.

10

Little Turtle

Chief of the Miami who led a Native American alliance that raided U.S. settlements in the Northwest Territory. He was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville. Later, he became an advocate for peace

11

funding at par

Alexander Hamilton's policy of paying off all federal bonds at face value in order to strengthen the national credit

12

strict construction

way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take

13

assumption

Part of Hamilton's economic theory. Stated that the federal government would assume all the states' debts for the American Revolution. This angered states such as Virginia who had already paid off their debts.

14

implied powers

Powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution

15

protective tariff

A tax on imported goods that raises the price of imports so people will buy domestic goods

16

agrarian

concerning farms, farmers, or the use of land

17

excise tax

a tax on the manufacturing of an item.

18

compact theory

The idea advanced by Rousseau, Locke, and Jefferson, that government is created by voluntary agreement among the people involved and that revolution is justified if government breaks the compact by exceeding its authority.

19

nullification

A state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional

20

amendment

A change to the Constitution

21

impressment

The British practice of taking American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812.

22

Bank of the United States

Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.

23

Bill of Rights

Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the this would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. This was drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.

24

French Revolution

1789-1799. Period of political and social upheaval in France, during which the French government underwent structural changes, and adopted ideals based on Enlightenment principles of nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights. Changes were accompanied by violent turmoil and executions.

25

Jay's Treaty

Treaty signed in 1794 between the U.S. And Britain in which Britain sought to improve trade relations and agreed to withdraw from forts in the northwest territory

26

Convention of 1800

Agreement to formally dissolve the United States' treaty with France, originally signed during the Revolutionary War. The difficulties posed by America's peacetime alliance with France contributed to Americans' longstanding opposition to entangling alliances with foreign powers.

27

Neutrality Proclamation of 1793

Washington's declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. This was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.

28

Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.

29

Ninth Amendment

Any rights not explicitly listed are automatically given to the people. (Meant to appease the Anti-Federalists)

30

Federalists

Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.

31

Tenth Amendment

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

32

Pinckney Treaty

1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.

33

Alien and Sedition Acts

These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The 4th Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to this

34

Battle of Fallen Timbers

The U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River

35

Farewell Address

1796 speech by Washington urging US to maintain neutrality and avoid permanent alliances with European nations

36

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.

37

Democratic-Republicans

Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank

38

Judiciary Act of 1789

In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.

39

Treaty of Greenville

Gave America all of Ohio after General Mad Anthony Wayne battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. 1795 Allowed Americans to explore the area with peace of mind that the land belonged to America and added size and very fertile land to America.

40

XYZ Affair

1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, naming the three French agents in his report to Congress.

41

Miami Confederacy

An alliance of North American Indians in the Great Lakes region following the American Revolutionary War. This confederacy came together to resist the expansion of the United States into the Northwest Territory after Great Britain ceded the region to the United States after the war.

42

war hawks

Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism. Westerners also wanted war with Indian Tribes

43

impressment

British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service. (also done by France)

44

Macon's Bill No. 2

While Madison was president, it opened trade with britain and france, said if either nation repealed its restrictions on neutral shipping the US would halt trade with the other, didn't work

45

Aaron Burr

Vice President to Thomas Jefferson for one term. Dueled with Alexander Hamilton, resulting in Hamilton's death. Known for his trial and acquittal on charges of treason.

46

Tenskwatawa (the Prophet)

A Shawnee Indian leader who with his borther (Tecumseh) brought together many tribes to go against the colonists. Killed by Harrison at Tippecanoe

47

Tecumseh

Chief of the Shawnee who with his brother (the Prophet, Tenskwatawa) tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement. Killed by Harrison at Thames.

48

William Clark and Meriwether Lewis

American explorers who led an expedition through the Northern portions of the Louisiana Purchase

49

Henry Clay

Senator from Kentucky. War hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, 34 years old

50

Napolean Bonaparte

Ruler of France, sold Louisisana to the Americans after reciving it from the Spanish

51

Zebulon Pike

explored the southern portion of the Louisiana Territory. He saw the Rocky Mountains. The Highest peak is named after him.

52

John Marshall

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Federalist. Presided over cases such as Marbury V. Madison; judicial review

53

Thomas Jefferson

3rd President; leader of Democratic-Republicans; created republicanism; 1st President to take office in Washington D.C.

54

William Marbury

named a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia; sued Madison when he learned that his commission was being shelved by Madison (Secretary of State)

55

James Madison

4th President; Secretary of State; lead nation through War of 1812

56

Toussaint L'Ouverture

Leader of ex-slaves in the rebellion in Haiti against French

57

John Adams

Former Vice President and President. Ironically Known as "the Father of the American Navy." He split with Hamiltonian federalists over the issue of the war with France.

58

Judiciary Act of 1801

passed by Federalist congress; created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial positions

59

Orders in Council

British act that closed European ports under French control to foreign shipping, unless the vessels 1st stopped at a British port. Authorized impressment.

60

Revolution of 1800

Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution." It was a peaceful transfer of political power.

61

Midnight Judges

a nickname given to group of judicial branch officials that was appointed by John Adams the night before he left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts to have a long term federalist influence.

62

Chesapeake incident

1807 - Named after the The American ship that refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the it.

63

Marbury v. Madison

This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review

64

Embargo Act

Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.

65

Louisiana Purchase

1803, the U.S. spends $15 million to buy a large amount of land from the west of the Mississippi from France; doubled the size of the United States

66

Non-Intercourse Act

After the Embargo act was repealed, it allowed Americans to carry on trade with all nations except Britian and France.

67

Mosquito Fleet

It is the term used to describe the United States Navy's fleet of small gunboats, leading up to and during the War of 1812. Used with success against barbary pirates.

68

Barbary Pirates

Looted US ships and indirectly declared war. Jefferson sent the navy to stop them. Mosquito fleet was used with much success here.

69

Sacajawea

Shoshoni woman who helped Lewis and Clark in their expodition

70

William Henry Harrison

Governor of Indiana Territory who defeated Tecumseh and the Prophet (Tenskwatawa)

71

Battle of the Thames

Led by William Henry Harrison, Tecumseh is killed, Indian confederacy dream perished

72

War of 1812

America entered for freedom of the seas and against (British) Indian issues

73

Battle of Tippecanoe

Led by William Henry Harrison, the Prophet is killed. Harrison is celebrated as a hero.

74

Sally Hemmings

Slave of Thomas Jefferson's who federalists said that he had children with.

75

Battle of Horseshoe Bend

Andrew Jackson crushed the Creek Indians on March 27, 1814, effectively breaking the Indian rebellion and leaving the entire area east of the Mississippi open for safe settlement

76

Andrew Jackson

Military leader in charge of crushing the creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.

77

War of 1812

(1812-1815): fought b/w US and Britain largely over issues of trade and impressment. Ended in relative draw, but showed the US willingness to fight for their beliefs and earned respect from the European nations. "2nd war for independence."

78

Battle of New Orleans

Battle won by the US and Andrew Jackson. Was a decisive win for the United States in the War of 1812.

79

Congress of Vienna

(1814-1815): Convention of major European powers to redraw the boundaries of continental Europe after the defeat of Napoleonic France.

80

Treaty of Ghent

(1815): Ended the War of 1812 in a virtual draw, restoring prewar borders but failing to address and of the grievances that first brought America into the war.

81

Hartford Convention

(1814-1815): convention of Federalists from 5 New England states who opposed the War of 1812 and resented the strength of Southern and Western interests in Congress and in the White House.

82

Rush-Bagot Agreement

(1817): Signed by Britain and the US, established strict limits on naval armaments in the Great Lakes, a first step in the full demilitarization of the US-Canadian border, finalized in the 1870s.

83

Tariff of 1816

First protective tariff in US History, created primarily to shield New England manufacturers from the inflow of British goods after the War of 1812.

84

American System

(1820s): Henry Clay's three pronged system to promote American industry. Clay advocated a strong banking system, a protective tariff, and a federally funded transportation network.

85

The Era of Good Feelings

(1816-1824): Popular name for the period of one-party, Republican, rule during James Madison's presidency. The term obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery, and the national bank.

86

The Panic of 1819

severe financial crisis brought on primarily by the efforts of the Bank of the United States to curb over-speculation on western lands. It disproportionally affected the poorer classes, especially in the West, sowing the seeds of Jacksonian Democracy.

87

Land act of 1820

Fueled the settlement of the Northwest and Missouri territories by lowering the price of public land. Also prohibited the purchase of federal acreage on credit, thereby eliminating on of the causes of the Panic of 1819.

88

Tallmadge Amendment

(1819): Failed proposal to prohibit the importation of slaves into Missouri territory and pave the way for gradual emancipation. Southerners opposed this, which they perceived as a threat to the sectional balance between the North and the South.

89

Peculiar institution

Widely used term for the institution of American Slavery in the South. Its use in the first half of the 19th century reflected a growing division in the North, where slavery was gradually abolished, and the South, where slavery became increasingly entrenched.

90

The Missouri Compromise

(1820): Allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state but preserved the balance between North and South by carving free-soil Maine out of the Massachusetts and prohibiting slavery from territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase, north of the line 36.30.

91

McCulloch v. Maryland

(1819): Supreme Court case that strengthened federal authority and upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States by establishing that the state bank of Maryland did not have power to tax the bank.

92

Loose construction

idea of using the elastic clause as a way of interpreting the constitution

93

Cohens v. Virginia

Case that reinforced federal supremacy by establishing the right of the Supreme court to review decisions of state supreme courts in questions involving the powers of the federal government.

94

Gibbons v. Ogden

(1824): suit over whether New York State could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters. The ruling reasserted that Congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce.

95

Fletcher v. Peck

(1810): Established firmer protection for private property and asserted the right of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws in conflict with the Constitution.

96

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

(1819): Supreme Court case that sustained Dartmouth University's original charter against changes proposed by the New Hampshire state legislature, thereby protecting corporations from domination by state governments

97

Anglo-American Convention

(1818): Signed by Britain and the US, the pact allowed New England fishermen access to Newfoundland fisheries, established the Northern border of Louisiana territory and provided for the joint occupation of the Oregon Country for 10 years.

98

Florida Purchase Territory (Adams-Onis Treaty)

(1819): Under the agreement, Spain ceded Florida to the US, which, in exchange, abandoned its claims to Texas.

99

Monroe Doctrine

Statement delivered by President James Monroe, warning European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas. The US largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who sought free access to Latin American markets.

100

Russo-American Treaty

(1824): fixed the line of 54.40' as the southernmost boundary of Russian holdings in North America

101

Oliver Hazard Perry

American naval officer whose decisive victory over a British fleet on Lake Erie during the War of 1812 reinvigorated American morale and paved the way for General William Henry Harrison's victory at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.

102

Francis Scott Key

Author and lawyer who composed the "Star Spangled Banner", our national anthem, while observing the bombardment of Fort McHenry from the deck of a British ship where he was detained.

103

James Monroe

Revolutionary war soldier, statesman, and 5th president. As president, he supported protective tariffs, and a national bank, but maintained a Jeffersonian opposition to federally funded improvements. Though he sought to transcend partisanship, even undertaking a goodwill tour of the states in 1817, his presidency was rocked by partisan and sectional conflicts.

104

John Marshall

Supreme Court Chief Justice who expanded the power of both the Supreme Court and the National Government

105

Washington Irving

Early American Writer. Wrote Rumplestilskin and Legend of Sleepy Hollow

106

James Fenimore Cooper

Early American Writer. Wrote the Deerslayer, and Last of the Mohicans