What four questions loomed large at the end of the Civil War?
1. How would the South be rebuilt? 2. How would liberated blacks fare as free men and women? 3. How would Southern states be reintegrated into the Union? 4. Who would direct the process of Reconstruction (Southern states, president, or Congress)?
What happened to Jefferson Davis after the Civil War?
Imprisoned for two years, but was finally released.
What was the primary reason that Jefferson Davis was set free after his two year imprisonment?
The odds were that no Virginian jury would convict him.
What happened to all Confederate rebel leaders after the Civil War?
The rebel leaders were pardoned by President Johnson as a Christmas present in 1868.
What was economic life like in the South after the Civil War?
1. Banks and businesses had locked their doors. 2. Factories were dismantled. 3. transportation system broken down (partially due to Sherman's march)
What was agriculture like after the Civil War?
1) Cotton fields only yielded weeds 2) slave labor system had collapsed 3) seed was scarce 4) livestock had been driven off by Yankees
What were princely planter aristocrats like after the Civil War?
They were temporarily humbled. Slavery, their primary source of wealth, was gone.
What happened to many slaves after they were emancipated?
They were re-enslaved and had to be re-emancipated.
What was the master-slave relationship like after the Civil War?
Loyalty to the plantation master prompted some slaves to resist the liberating Union armies, while other slaves burst forward violently on the day of emancipation.
How did some blacks initially respond to the news of emancipation?
With suspicion and uncertainty. Many changed their names and demanded whites formally address them as "Mr." and "Mrs." Others sought nicer clothing.
Why did many emancipated blacks go to the roads?
To search for lost family members.
How did emancipation strengthen the black family?
Many men and woman formalized "slave marriages"
Who were the Exodusters?
25,000 blacks from Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi who surged in a mass exodus to Kansas from 1878 to 1880.
When did the flow of the Exodusters stop?
When steamboat captains refused to ship more of them across the Mississippi River.
What became the focus of the black community?
The church became the focus of the black community.
What did black churches help give rise to?
Black churches helped give rise to mutual aid societies that helped blacks protect their freedom.
What happened when many blacks became interested in education?
Demand outstripped the quantity of black teachers.
What was the Freedman's Bureau?
It was to provide food, clothing, medical care, and education to both freedmen and to white refugees.
Who was the head of the Freedman's Bureau?
Oliver O. Howard
What was the Freedman's Bureau's greatest success?
Education. The Freedman's Bureau taught 200,000 blacks how to read.
What mischievous things went on in the Freedman's Bureau?
Although the bureau was authorized to settle former slaves on 40 acre tracts confiscated from Confederates, little land actually made it into blacks' hands. Instead local administrators often collaborated with planters in expelling blacks from towns and cajoling them into signing labor contracts with their former masters.
What did President Andrew Johnson think of the Freedman's Bureau?
Johnson hated the Freedman's Bureau and repeatedly tried to kill it.
How did the Freedman's Bureau end?
The Freedman's Bureau expired in 1872.
What humble beginnings did Johnson come from?
Johnson was born to poor North Carolinian parents and orphaned early. He never went to school and was apprenticed as a tailor at 10. He taught himself to read and his wife taught him how to write and do simple math.
Who did Johnson attract favorable from and why when he was elected to Congress?
Johnson attracted favorable attention from the North when he refused to secede with his own state, Tennessee.
Why was Johnson chosen to be vice president?
Johnson was chosen to attract support from the War Democrats?
What happened at the vice-presidential inaugural ceremonies?
Johnson had typhoid fever and took some whiskey with unfortunate results.
What was Johnson like?
Johnson was intelligent, able, forceful, honest, devoted to duty and to his people, and a states' rights and Constitution champion.
Why was Johnson a misfit as president?
1. Southerner who did not understand the North 2. A Tennessean who earned he distrust of the South 3. A Democrat who had never been accepted by Republicans 4. A president who had never been elected to the office
What did Lincoln believe about the Southern states?
Lincoln believed the Southern states never legally withdrew from the Union.
What was Lincoln's 10% plan?
the 10% plan decreed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to the US and pledged to abide by emancipation. The next step would be to form a state government.
Why did Republicans ram the Wade-Davis Bill through Congress?
The Republicans were afraid of the planter aristocracy coming back to power and the possible re-enslavement of blacks.
What was the Wade-Davis Bill?
Wade-Davis Bill required 50% of state's voters take the oath of allegiance and demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation than Lincoln's as the price of readmission into the Union.
What did Lincoln do to the Wade-Davis Bill?
Lincoln pocket-vetoed the Wade-Davis Bill.
What is a pocket-veto?
A veto when Congress is out of session
How did Republicans express their outrage at Lincoln's pocket-veto?
They refused to seat a delegate from Louisiana after that state had reorganized its government in accordance with Lincoln's 10% plan in 1864.
How did the Wade-Davis Bill controversy reveal the differences between Congress and the president?
Many people in Congress thought that the seceders had left the Union and could only be reentered as "conquered provinces"
How did the Wade-Davis Bill controversy reveal the differences among Republicans?
The majority moderate group tended to agree with Lincoln that the seceded states would reenter the Union as simply and swiftly as reasonable-though on Congress's terms, not the president's. The minority radial group believed the South should atone more painfully for its sins by having its social structure uprooted, the haughty planters punished, and the blacks protected by federal power.
Why were some of the radical Republicans pleased when Lincoln was killed?
The radicals thought that Johnson, who shared their hatred for the planter aristocracy, would also share their desire the reconstruct the South with a rod of iron.
What did Johnson do regarding Lincoln's 10% plan?
He recognized several of them quickly and agreed with Lincoln that the seceded states never left the Union/
What was Johnson's Reconstitution proclamation?
1) disfranchised certain leading Confederates, including those with taxable property worth $20,000+ (though they might petition him for personal pardons) 2) it called for special state conventions, which were required to repeal the ordinances of secession, repudiate all Confederate dents, and ratify the slave-freeing 13th Amendment
Why did Johnson grant pardons in abundance?
He enjoyed having the high-toned aristocrats beg for his favor.
What were the Black Codes?
The Black Codes were laws designed to regulate the affairs of emancipated blacks.
In which states were the Black Codes harshest and most lenient?
Mississippi's Black Codes were the harshest and Georgia's Black Codes were the most lenient.
What were the Black Codes aimed at?
The Black Codes aimed to ensure a stable and subservient labor force. Many whites wanted to make sure they retained the tight control they had exercised over black field hands and plow drivers in the days of slavery.
What were some dire penalties imposed by the Black Codes on blacks who "jumped" their labor contracts?
1) Committed to work for the same employer for one year usually at pittance wages. 2) In Mississippi captured freedmen could be fined then hired out to pay their fine.
What are some examples of Black Codes?
1) Freedmen could not assemble without the presence of a white person. 2) Freedmen were not to be taught how to read or write. 3) Public facilities were segregated
What did the Black Codes also sought to do?
The Black Codes also sought to restore the pre-emancipation system of race relations. All codes forbade blacks to serve on a jury and vote, and some forbade a black from renting and leasing land.
What did many poor former slaves do?
They became sharecropper farmers
What happened when the congressional delegates from the Southern states presented themselves in the Capitol in 1865?
Many former Confederate leaders showed up
Who were the "whitewashed rebels?"
ex-Confederate leaders who showed up as congressional delegates in the Capitol
Why did the South have more votes after the war?
the 3/5 Compromise was revoked and now the slaves counted for 5/5 of a person, giving the Southern states 12 more votes in Congress and in presidential elections.
What provoked the Civil Right's Bill?
Johnson vetoing the extension of the Freedman's Bureau
What was the Civil Rights Bill?
It conferred on blacks American citizenship and stuck at the Black Codes
What did President Johnson do to the Civil Rights Bill?
He vetoed it
What did Congress do to the Civil Rights Bill?
Congress overrode Johnson's veto and passed the Civil Rights Bill
What provoked the 14th Amendment?
Republicans feared that Southerners might one day win control of Congress and repeal the hated Civil Rights Bill
What is the 14th Amendment
It contained the principles of the Civil Rights Bill 1) conferred civil rights, including citizenship but excluding franchise, on the freedmen 2) reduced proportionality the representation of a state in Congress and the Electoral College if it denied blacks the ballot 3) disqualified from federal and state office former Confederates who as federal officeholders had once sworn "to support the Constitution of the United States" 4) guaranteed the federal debt, while repudiating all Confederate debts
What did Johnson suggest to the Southern states regarding the 14th Amendment?
to reject it
What did all Republicans agree on regarding the 14th Amendment?
No state should be readmitted into the Union unless they ratify the 14th Amendment.
Which Southern state first ratified the 14th Amendment?
What was Johnson's famous "swing 'round the circle?"
Johnson gave a series of "give ;em hell" speeches, in which he accused the radicals in Congress of having planned large-scale antiblack riots and murder in the South. Helped opponent win the congressional elections of 1866. More than 2/3s of both houses of Congress was now Republican.
Who was Charles Sumner?
Led radicals in the Senate and labored for racial equality and black freedom.
Who was Thaddeus Stevens?
Congressman from PA who was the most powerful radical in the House. Defended blacks in court without fee and requested a black burial ceremony. Leading figure in the Joint Committee on Reconstruction. Hated rebellious white Southerners.
What was one thing all Republicans agreed on by 1867?
It was necessary to enfranchise black voters.
What was the Reconstruction Act?
The Reconstruction Act divided the South into 5 military districts, each commanded by a Union general and policed by blue-clad soldiers. It also disfranchised tens of thousands of former Confederates.
What were the new conditions for readmission laid down by Congress by the Reconstruction Act?
1) Wayward states required to ratify 14th Amendment 2) Guarantee full suffrage for their former adult male slaves
What was the purpose of the moderates?
To create an electorate in Southern states that would vote those states back into the Union on acceptable terms and thus free the federal government form direct responsibility for the protection of black rights.
What fear stimulated the 15th Amendment?
Radical Republicans feared the unrepentant states would amend their constitutions so as to withdraw the ballot from blacks.
What is the 15th Amendment?
sought to provide constitutional protection for the suffrage provisions in the Reconstruction Act
What was military reconstruction like in the South?
Usurped certain functions of the president as commander in chief and set up a martial regime of dubious legality.
What did the Supreme Court rule in the case of Ex parte Milligan?
Military tribunals could not try civilians where the civil courts were open.
What happened after all the Southern governments had been accorded with full rights?
Remained under Republican rule than white Redeemers, which were Democrats, took over once federal troops left.
Who were prominent women's-rights advocates?
Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
How did the Woman's Loyal League help the black cause?
Gathered 400,000 signatures on petitions asking Congress to pass a constitutional amendment prohibiting slavery
What was the Union League?
An organization started by Southern black men. Assisted by Northern blacks, freedmen turned the League into a network of political clubs that educated members on their civic duties and campaigned for Republican candidates. Mission expanded to include building black churches and schools, representing black grievances before local employers and government, and recruiting militias to protect black communities from white retaliation.
What was the new political roles of African American women?
Attended parades and rallies and helped assemble mass meetings in black churches. Showed up at constitutional conventions monitoring the proceedings and participating in informal voting.
Who were the backbone of black political community?
Black men elected as delegates to state constitutional conventions
Who were the 2 black senators 1868-1876 from Mississippi?
Hiram Revels and Blanche K. Bruce
Who were scalawags?
Southerners, often former Unionists and Whigs, accused of plundering the treasuries of Southern states through their political influence in the radical governments.
Who were carpetbaggers?
Sleazy Northerners who had packed up all their worldly goods in a carpetbag suitcase at the war's ends and had come south to seek personal power and wealth.
Who actually were most carpetbaggers?
Former Union soldiers and Northern businessmen and professionals who wanted to play a role in modernizing the "New South"
How did the radical regimes rule?
1. radical legislatures passed much desirable legislation and introduced many needed reforms 2. steps were taken in establishing adequate public schools 3. tax systems were streamlined 4. public works were launched 5. property rights granted to women 6) in LA and SC inexperienced blacks were sometimes used as pawns
What was the Ku Klux Klan ("Invisible Empire of the South")?
founded in TN. designed to frighten "upstart" blacks
What were the Force Acts?
response to KKK; ruled out much of "lash law"
How was wholesale disfranchisement of blacks done?
unfair literacy tests
What was the Tenure Office Act?
Designed as first step to remove Johnson. required president to secure consent of the senate before he could remove one of his appointees once they had been approved by that body. one purpose to freeze Edwin M. Stanton in cabinet who spied on Johnson.
What did Johnson's lawyers argue during his impeachment trial?
Johnson fired Stanton to put a test case before the Supreme Court. Not impeached y margin of 1 vote.
What factors shaped the outcome of Johnson's impeachment trial?
1. fear of creating destabilizing precedent 2. opposition to abusing the constitutional mechanism of checks and balances 3. next in line for presidency, Benjamin Wade was a bad candidate 4. Johnson agreed to stop obstructing Republican policies in return for remaining in office
What was the Johnson administration's most endearing success in?
foreign relations (purchase of Alaska)
Why did the Russians want to sell Alaska to the US in 1867
1. overextended in US 2. did not want Britain to take control; preferred US because they wanted to strengthen it against Britain
What was Seward's Folly?
William Seward signed a contract with Russia that transferred Alaska to the US for $7.2 million
Why did Congress and the American public sanction the purchase of Alaska?
1. Since Russia had been friendly to US during Civil War, US did not think it polite to reject gift 2. territory rumored to be teeming with furs, fish, and gold