American Pageant Chapter 30

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1

"Irreconcilables": Borah, Johnson, LaFollette

Some senators known as "irreconcilables" opposed the Treaty because it committed the U.S. to the League of Nations. This group of 16 senators could not be reconciled to, or made to accept, the Treaty. They argued that joining the League would threaten American independence in making foreign policy. The handful of Senate "irreconcilables," led by senators William Borah of Idaho, Hiram Johnson of California, and Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin, were basically isolationists who were uncompromising in their opposition to U.S. membership in the League of Nations.

2

"Wooblies"

ndustrial workers of the world

3

18th Amendment

Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages

4

1919 Steel Strike

As price inflation threatened to eclipse wage gains, and over 6,000 strikes broke out during the war, the greatest occurring in 1919, when 250,000 steelworkers walked off the job. In that strike, the steel owners brought in 30,000 African-Americans to break the strike, and in the end, the strike collapsed, hurting the labor cause for more than a decade. Strike centered in Chicago that united 365 immigrant workers demanding unions higher wages an an 8 hour workday.

5

Alice Paul

Head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.

6

Alvin York

Tennessee-born soldier whose action in the Argonne Forest made him an American hero. Killed 25 machine-gunners and captured 132 German soldiers when his soldiers took cover; won Congressional Medal of Freedom

7

Arthur Zimmermann

German minister whose famous telegram was responsible for drawing the US into WWI

8

Bernard Baruch

He headed the War Industries Board which placed the control of industries into the hands of the federal government. It was a prime example of War Socialism.

9

Big Four

The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy.

10

Bolsheviks

A group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia's government in November 1917

11

Chateau-Thierry, Battle of

The first significant engagement of American troops in World War I—and, indeed, in any European war. To weary French soldiers, the American doughboys were an image of fresh and gleaming youth.

12

Chateau-Thierry

Battle where Americans saw their first serious action; helped turn back a German offensive on the Marne River in June 1918

13

Committee on Public Information

It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.

14

Consription

an enforced enrollment or military draft

15

Council of National Defense

Organization of composed of Wilson's cabinet members, which he established in 1916 to organize the economy to meet war needs. They proposed to divide the economy by organizing a series of planning bodies, who would each supervise a branch of the economy.

16

David Lloyd George

Britain's prime minister at the end of World War I whose goal was to make the Germans pay for the other countries' staggering war losses

17

Espionage Act

This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.

18

Eugene V. Debs

Head of the American Railway Union and director of the Pullman strike; he was imprisoned along with his associates for ignoring a federal court injunction to stop striking. While in prison, he read Socialist literature and emerged as a Socialist leader in America.

19

Food Administration/Herbert Hoover

boost food growth, develop slogans, "Food will win the war", encourage people to grow their own "victory garden" and to conserve food.

20

Four-Minute Men

Men sent on tour by Pres. Wilson to present four minute propaganda speeches to the public

21

Fourteen Points

A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.

22

Fuel Administration

government agency created during the war to regulate the use of coal for the war effort

23

General John J. Pershing

General of the American Expeditionary Force in WWI

24

George Creel

Headed the Committee on Public Information, for promoting the war effort in WWI

25

George M. Cohan

American composer famous for his World War I songs: "Over There" and "You're A Grand Ole Flag"

26

Governor Calvin Coolidge

Called out the National Guard to keep order in MA due to the 1919 police strike. He declared that there was "no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime." Resulted in him becoming the Vice Presidential Candidate.

27

Great Migration

movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920

28

Henry Cabot Lodge

Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations

29

Herbert C. Hoover (1929-1933)

Before serving as America's 31st President from 1929 to 1933, Herbert Hoover had achieved international success as a mining engineer and worldwide gratitude as "The Great Humanitarian" who fed war-torn Europe during and after World War I.

30

Hiram Johnson

A progressive reformer of the early 1900s. He was elected the republican govenor of California in 1910, and helped to put an end to trusts. He put an end to the power that the Southern Pacific Railroad had over politics.

31

Industrial Workers of the World

Founded in 1905, this radical union, also known as the Wobblies aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor's interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution, and led several major strikes. Stressed solidarity.

32

Isolationism

A policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations

33

isolationists

a policy of abstaining from an active role in international affairs or alliances, which characterized US foreign policy toward Europe during most of the 1800's

34

James M. Cox

was a Governor of Ohio, U.S. Representative from Ohio and Democratic candidate for President of the United States in the election of 1920.

35

Jeannette Rankin

the first woman elected to congress. she was from montana and voted against WWI as well as WWII.

36

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

37

Liberty Loans

Bonds sold by the Treasury Department largely through propaganda campaigns, used to raise two thirds of the cost of the war

38

Meuse-Argonne Offensive

also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire western front. The whole offensive was planned by Marshall Ferdinand Foch to breach the Hindenburg line and ultimately force the opposing German forces to surrender;

39

National War Labor Board

A board that negotiated labor disputes and gave workers what they wanted to prevent strikes that would disrupt the war

40

National Woman's Party (Alice Paul)

A group of militant suffragists who took to the streets with mass pickets, parades, and hunger strikes to convince the govt to give them the right to vote. Led by Alice Paul.

41

Nineteenth Amendment

The constitutional amendment adopted in 1920 that guarantees women the right to vote.

42

Normalcy

Harding wanted a return to "normalcy" - the way life was before WW I.

43

Russian Revolution of 1917

Spontaneous rebellion that erupted in Russia after the country's defeat at the hands of Japan in 1905; the revolution was suppressed, but it forced the government to make substantial reforms. Czar forced to give up throne and assassinated; (U.S. finds it easier to join Allies WWI)

44

Schenck v. United States (1919)

Speech may be punished if it creates a clear-and-present-danger test of illegal acts

45

Second Battle of the Marne

The first battle that the US participated in overseas. They stopped Germany from taking France, turning point of world war 1

46

Sedition Act of 1918

added to Espionage Act to cover "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the American form of government, the Constitution, the flag, or the armed forces.

47

Self-determination

the right of people to choose their own form of government

48

Senator Warren G. Harding

Folksy Ohio senator whose 1920 presidential victory ended the last hopes for U.S. participation in the League of Nations

49

Seneca Falls Convention

(1848) the first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written

50

Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act

(1921) Designed to appeal to new women voters, this act provided federally financed instruction in maternal and infant health care and expanded the role of government in family welfare.

51

Treaty of Versailles (1919)

Treaty that ended World War I; it was much harder on Germany than Wilson wanted but not as punitive as France and England desired. It was harsh enough, however, to set stage for Hitler's rise of power in Germany in 1930s.

52

Victory Loans

Helped fund part of WWI and WWII. Average citizens would buy them in a sense loaning money to the government.

53

War Industries Board

Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.

54

William Borah ("Irreconcilables")

Leader who was indefinitely against the League of Nations and no amendment would change him or his group's opinions

55

William Borah and Hiram Johnson

the 2 senators who followed Wilson on his western tour to speak against the treaty that ended WWI

56

William D. ("Big Bill") Haywood (1869-1928)

As a leader of the Industrial Workers of the World, the Western Federation of Miners, and the Socialist Party of America, He was one of the most feared American labor radicals. During World War I, he became a special target of anti-leftist legislation.

57

Wilsonianism

President Wilson's idealistic world view of opposing imperialism, war, revolution and the belief in democracy/democratic peace theory

58

Zimmermann Note (1917)

Secret German message to Mexico (intercepted by the US) which offered to return to Mexico the lands it lost in the Mexican-American War.