American Pageant Chapter 29
Who, in 1775 formed the first anti slavery society?
The Philadelphia Quakers.
What prevented the complete abolition of slavery during the years of the American Revolution?
Fears that a fight over slavery would have fractured the fragile national unity.
What differentiated the American constitution from the British Constitution?
The British Constitution was a collection of laws, customs, and presidents while the American Constitution was a contract that defined the powers of government.
What is republican motherhood?
A popular sentiment of the American Revolutionary period that revered women as homemakers and mothers and the cultivators of good republican values in young citizens.
Following the revolution, what kinds of sovereign behaviors did the individual states exhibit?
They each coined their own money, raised their own armies and navies, erected tariff barriers, and, in the case of Virginia, engaged in their own foreign treaties.
What was the first written constitution in America and when was it adopted?
The Articles of Confederation was adopted in 1777 (but wasn't ratified by all thirteen states until 1781)
Who held out until 1781 to ratify the Articles of Confederation?
It was Maryland! The larger states (New York and Virginia) were able to sell off land to pay war debt and Maryland wanted some of New York. The problem was solved by giving some of New York to the Federal Government for the 'common benefit.'
What were Congress's two biggest handicaps during the early days of the Constitution?
1. It had no power to regulate commerce, and 2. It had no means for enforcing its tax-collection program.
What was the location of the early American Congress?
According to the Northwest Ordinance what was necessary for a territory to become a state?
What did the Northwest Ordinance say about slavery?
The ordinance forbade slavery in the Old Northwest.
What was the Old Northwest?
A huge area northwest of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi. It is now occupied by part of Minnesota, and all of Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan
What was the Land Ordinance of 1785?
It dictated that the area known as the Old Northwest should be divided into townships six miles square with each of those divided into thirty six one mile areas. These one mile areas were sold off to raise money for the federal government with each 16th s
What were some of the unfriendly things that the British did to the colonies following the war.
The refused American trade ships; blocked American access to the West Indies; tried to annex Vermont; and curried favor with Indians that were hostile towards the colonists.
What important colonial route did Spain control?
Entrance to the mouth of the Mississippi.
What did France want from American following the Revolution.
The French wanted the colonies to pay off the money they borrowed to fund the Revolution?
Where did the pirates that ravaged American shores come from?
North Africa, especially Algeria attached American shores and frequently enslaved Yankee soldiers.
What was Shays Rebellion? and when did it happen?
In 1786 Captain Daniel Shays led a group of impoverished Massachusetts farmers who were losing their farms in foreclosures marched on the state government to demand that they issue paper money.
How was Shays Rebellion resolved?
Wealthy Massachusetts residents quickly put together an army and there were several battles with the Massachusetts army emerging as the victor?
What were the legislative ramifications of Shays Rebellion?
It frightened the wealthier colonists. Debt relief laws (that Shay wanted) were put into place, but also it heralded in a stronger Federal Government which was achieved via a new Constitution.
Society of the Cincinnati
A secret society formed by officers of the Continental Army. The group was named for George Washington, whose nickname was Cincinnatus, although Washington himself had no involvement in the society.
What is Primogeniture?
med evil concept of seniority by birth; state of being the first-born child; right of the eldest child (to inherit the entire property of one or both parents) began to dissipate in the 1800's
What was the Congregational Church?
A church grown out of the Puritan church, was established in all New England colonies but Rhode Island. It was based on the belief that individual churches should govern themselves. The Congregational Church become more popular than the English Anglican
What was the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom?
Written in 1776 by Jefferson and Madison it argued that the concept of compulsory religion is wrong, no forced religious worship or ministry and no discrimination on account of his opinions or belief but free to believe what they wish, and that these righ
What did James Madison write regarding slavery vs the union?
wrote in 1778 "Great as the evil (slavery) is a dismemberment of the union would be worse"
What is Civic Virtue?
notion that democracy depended on unselfish commitment to the public good
What was the Continental Congress?
A first meeting of ambassadors from the territories that called for a republic where states govern
What was special about the New Jersey's 1776 Constitution?
Gave women the right to vote for a time
What were the Articles of Confederation?
A written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states, this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the powe
What was the Constitutional Convention?
A meeting of delegates in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation, which produced the new U.S. Constitution
What is a fundamental law?
Laws of basic and lasting importance which may not easily be changed.
What is the House of representatives?
the number of representatives would be based on the state population.
What is the Senate?
upper house of the legislature, each state elects two
What is the Executive branch?
the branch of the United States government that is responsible for carrying out the laws
What is the Electoral college?
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
What was Virginia's Large State Plan for the new government?
It said that the arrangement in Congress should be based upon a state's population.
What was New Jersey's Small State Plan for the new government?
It centered on equal representation in Congress without regards to a state's size or population.
What was the final result of the small state plan and the large state plan?
The final compromise û known as ôö û was a Congress composed of two parts
What were Federalists?
The Federalists favored a strong Federal Government. In general they were wealthier than the Anti-federalists, more educated, and better organized.á They also controlled the press. George Washington and Benjamin Franklin were Federalists
What were Anti-Federalists?
The Anti-federalists were led byáSamuel Adams,áPatrick Henry, andáRichard Henry Lee.á The followers consisted of states' rights devotees, back country dwellers, and one-horse farmers - in general, the poorest class.