American Pageant Chapter 8

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1

Second Continental Congress

Group of delegates who met in Philadelphia to continue addressing colonial grievances to the king and Parliament; drafted new appeals to the British people and king. Also adopted measures to raise money and create an army and navy

2

George Washington

Chosen by fellow delegates to head the continental army

3

Bunker Hill

Seized by colonists in June 1775 from which they menaced the enemy in Boston

4

Olive Branch Petition

Professed American loyalty to the crown and begged the king to prevent further hostilities

5

Hessians

American slang for the German troops under British command

6

Falmouth, Maine

Burned by the British in October of 1775

7

Richard Montgomery

General who pushed up the Lake Champlain route and captured Montreal, Canada

8

Norfolk, Virginia

Burned by the British in January 1776

9

Common Sense

Pamphlet written in 1776 by Thomas Paine

10

Thomas Paine

Author of the influential Common Sense

11

Republic

Type of society where power flows from the people themselves

12

Richard Henry Lee

Moved that "these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states."

13

Thomas Jefferson

Virginian lawyer chosen to prepare a more formal statement of declaration

14

Declaration of Independence

Formal declaration of independence from Britain, approved by Congress on July 4, 1776

15

Loyalists

Colonials loyal to the king

16

Patriots

American rebels

17

Johnny Burgoyne

Actor-playwright-soldier who would push down the Lake Champlain route from Canada in order to capture the Hudson River valley from the colonists

18

Benedict Arnold

Colonial general who repulsed British troops at Quebec (1775) and Lake Champlain (1776), turned traitor

19

Saratoga

Battle in which Burgoyne was forced to surrender his entire command on October 17, 1777 to American general Horatio Gates

20

Charleston

Colonial city captured that was crippling

21

Treaty of Fort Stanwix

First treaty between the United States and an Indian nation

22

George Rogers Clark

Floated down the Ohio River and captured the forts Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes

23

Admiral de Grasse

Joined the Americans in an assault on Cornwallis at Yorktown

24

John Jay

Percieved the French could not satisfy the conflicting ambitions of both Americans and Spaniards

25

Treaty of Paris of 1783

The British formally recognized the independence of the United States, and granted generous boundaries of land