Immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe who formed a recognizable wave of immigration from the 1800s until 1924, in contrast to the immigrants from western Europe who had come before them. These new immigrants congregated in ethnic urban neighborhoods, where they worried many native born Americans, some of whom responded with nativist anti-immigrant campaigns and others of whom introduced urban reforms to help the immigrants assimilate.
A reform movement led by Protestant ministers who used religious doctrine to demand better housing and living conditions for the urban poor. Popular at the turn of the twentieth century, it was closely linked to the settlement house movement, which brought middle-class, Anglo-American service volunteers into contact with immigrants and working people.
Mostly run by middle-class native born American women, settlement houses in immigrant neighborhoods provided housing, food, education, child care, cultural activities, and social connections for new arrival to the United States. Many women, both native born and immigrant, developed live long passions for social activism in the settlement houses. Jane Addams's Hull House in Chicago and Lillian Wald's Henry Street Settlement in New York City were two of the most prominent
American Protective Association
An anti-foreign organization created in 1887; soon claimed a million members; urged voting against Roman Catholic candidates for office and sponsored the publication of slanderous materials against immigrants
Members of a branch of Protestantism that flourished from 1875 to 1925 and encouraged followers to use the Bible as a moral compass rather to believe the Bible represented scientific or historical truth. Many Liberal Protestants became active in the "social gospel" and other reform movements of the era.
Helped benefit adults in education. This movement was launched in 1874 on the shores of Lake Chautauqua, in New York. The organizers achieved success through nationwide public lectures, often held in tents and featuring well-known speakers, including Mark Twain. In addition, there were extensive Chautauqua courses of home study. This movement contributed to the development of American faith in formal education.
A normal and industrial school led by Booker T. Washington in Tuskegee, Alabama. It focused on training young black students in agriculture and the trades to help them achieve economic independence. Washington justified segregation, vocational training as a necessary first step on the road to racial equality, although critics accused him of being too "accomodationist."
Morrill Act of 1862
passed in 1862, it aided in the growth of higher education; provided a generous grant of the public lands to the states for support of education
Colleges and universities created from the allocations of public land through the Morrill Act of 1862 and the Hatch Act of 1877. These grants helped fuel the boom in higher education in the late 19th century, and may of today's universities derive from these grants
A distinctive American philosophy that emerged in the late 19th century around the theory that the true value of an idea lay in its ability to solve problems . The pragmatists thus embraced the provisional, uncertain nature of experimental knowledge. Among the most well known purveyors of pragmatism were John Dewey, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr, and William James
A scandal mongering practice of journalism that emerged in New York during the Gilded Age out of the circulation battles between Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal. The expression has remained a pejorative term referring to the sensationalist journalist practices with unethical, unprofessional standards.
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
An organization founded in 1890 to demand the vote for women. NAWSA argued that women should be allowed to vote because their responsibilities in the home and family made them indispensable in the public decision making process. During WWI, NAWSA supported the war effort and lauded women's role in the Allie victory, which helped to finally achieve nationwide women suffrage in the 19th Amendment
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
Founded in 1874, this organization advocated for the prohibition of alcoholism using women's supposedly greater purity and morality as a rallying point. Advocates of prohibition in the United States found a common cause with activists elsewhere, Especially in Britain, and in the 1880s they founded the World Women's Temperance Union, which sent missionaries around the world to spread the gospel of temperance.
World's Columbian Exposition
Held in Chicago, Americans viewed this World's Fair as their opportunity to claim a place amongst the world's most "civilized" societies, by which they meant the countries of western Europe. The Fair honored art, architecture, and sciences, and its promoters built a mini city in which to host the fair that reflected the ideals of city planning popular at the time. For many, this was the high point of the "City Beautiful" movement.
Contributed the development of the skyscraper
Leading protestant adovocate of the "social gospel" who tried to make Christianity relevant to urban and industrial problems
Lead the Congregational Church in Columbus, OH and preached the social gospel
A middle-class woman dedicated to uplifting the urban masses; college educated (one of first generation); established the Hull House in Chicago in 1889 (most prominent American settlement house, mostly for immigrants); condemned war and poverty; won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931
Dwight Lyman Moody
Part of the social gospel movement, proclaimed the gospel of kindness and forgiveness and adapted the old-time religion to the facts of city life and founded an institute in 1889
Cardinal James Gibbons
Popular with Roman Catholics and Protestants, as he preached American unity.
Mary Baker Eddy
She founded the Church of Christ (Christian Science) in 1879. Preached that the true practice of Christianity heals sickness.
An English Naturalists who wrote the Origin of the Species in 1859. His theory stated that in nature the strongest of a species survive, the weaker animals died out leaving only the stronger of the species.
Booker T. Washington
An ex-slave who saved his money to buy himself an education. He believed that blacks must first gain economic equality before they gain social equality. He was President of the Tuskegee Institute and he was a part of the Atlanta Compromise. He believed that blacks should be taught useful skills so that whites would see them as useful.
W. E. B. Du Bois
Black leader; earned a Ph.D. at Harvard (the first of his race to achieve that goal); demanded complete equality for blacks, social as well as economic, and helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910; rejecting Booker T. Washington's gradualism and separatism, he demanded that the "talented tenth" of the black community be given full and immediate access to the mainstream of American life
A philosopher on Harvard faculty, wrote Principles of Psychology, The Will of to Believe, Varieties of Religious Experience, and Pragmatism; 1842-1910: Helped to express philosophy of the nation.
Leader in the technique of sensationalism in St. Louis and especially with the New York World, creator of the yellow press
A popular writer of the Post-Civil War time period. He was a Puritan New Englander who wrote more than a hundred volumes of juvenile fiction during his career; he believed that a combination of virtue, honesty, hard work, and bravery could achieve success, wealth, and honor
a popular writer of the Post-Civil War time period. He was a Puritan New Englander who wrote more than a hundred volumes of juvenile fiction during his career; the famous "rags to riches" theme.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
A major feminist prophet during the late 19th and early 20th century. She published "Women and Economics" which called on women to abandon their dependent status and contribute more to the community through the economy. She created centralized nurseries and kitchens to help get women into the work force.
Carrie Chapman Catt
She was a leader of the women's suffrage movement. Cast stressed the desirability of giving women the right to vote if they continued their traditional duties as homemakers and mothers in the increasingly public world. She was not successful in accomplishing her goal, but she did spark a movement that would eventually lead to women's right to vote.
a very large, heavily populated city or urban complex.
Long, narrow five story building shaped like barbells
a cheap, run-down hotel or rooming house
settlement house founded by Progressive reformer Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889
Florence Kelly (1859-1932)
She fought to change working conditions in sweatshops by arguing for the minimum wage, eight-hour workdays, and children's rights. Also helped found the NAACP.
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Statue of Liberty
European immigrants saw this structure as a symbol of hope and freedom. Gift from France to celebrate our centennial
This welfare organization came to the US from England in 1880 and sought to provide food, shelter, and employment to the urban poor while preaching temperance and morality.
survival of the fittest
A movement in American Protestantism that arose in the early part of the 20th century in reaction to modernism and that stresses the infallibility of the Bible not only in matters of faith and morals but also as a literal historical record, holding as essential to Christian faith belief in such doctrines as the creation of the world, the virgin birth, physical resurrection, atonement by the sacrificial death of Christ, and the Second Coming.
represented the earliest form of professional teacher education
George Washington Carver
African American farmer and food scientist. His research improved farming in the South by developing new products using peanuts.
Interracial organization founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination and to achieve political and civil rights for African Americans.
Hatch Act of 1887
extended the Morrill Act and provided federal funds for the establishment of agricultural experiment stations in connection with the land-grant colleges.
Dr. Charles W. Eliot
Was named president of Harvard. Symbolically, he changed Harvard's motto from Christo et Ecclesiae (for Christ and Church) to Veritas (Truth).
William Randolph Hearst
A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow (sensationalist) journalism."
He wrote Progress and Poverty in 1879, which made him famous as an opponent of the evils of modern capitalism.
In 1888, he wrote Looking Backward, 2000-1887, a description of a utopian society in the year 2000.
General Lewis Wallace
- a soldier in the Civil War who wanted to combat the Darwinian skepticism - wrote Ben Hur: A Tale of the Christ
American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry.
Reclusive New England poet who wrote about love, death, and immortality
A young California writer and adventurer who portrayed the conflict between nature and civilization in his novels.
Muckraker during the Progressive Era; wrote "The Octopus" (1901) that described the power of the railroads over Western farmers
Paul Laurence Dunbar
1st African American to make a living off his writing, Author of "We Wear the Mask," "Douglas" and "Slow through the Dark"
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
1872 - 1st female candidate for President; activist for women's rights and labor reforms; advocate of free love, by which she meant the freedom to marry, divorce, and bear children without government interference. Shook the pillars of conventional morality when she publicly proclaimed her belief in free love in 1871. She was a divorcee, sometime stockbroker, and a tireless feminist propagandist.
Persuaded Congress in 1873 to pass the "Comstock Law" which prohibited the mailing or transportation of obscene and lewd material and photographs.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
People who advocated that women should have the right to vote.
Became leader of the WCTU. She worked to educate people about the evils of alcohol. She urged laws banning the sale of liquor. Also worked to outlaw saloons as step towards strengthening democracy.
Carrie A. Nation (1846-1911)
In 20th Century Movements To Reform American Society -Outspoken leader in the Women's Christian Temperance Union-Best known for smashing bars with her trademark hatchet
Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.
A Realist painter known for his seascapes of New England.
Phineas T. Barnum
Phineas T. Barnum was the most famous showman of his era (1810-1891). He was a Connecticut Yankee who earned the title, "the Prince of Humbug." Beginning in New York City, he "humbugged" the American public with bearded ladies and other freaks. Under his golden assumption that a "sucker" was born every minute, Barnum made several prize hoaxes, including the 161-year-old (actually 80) wizened black "nurse" of George Washington.
William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody
Renowned scout, Indian fighter, and showman who symbolized the "Wild West" mythos
United States sharpshooter who was featured in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show (1860-1926)