By the time the Constitution was signed in 1789, Americans had come to regard a central authority as _____________, but something to be _________________
List 3 reasons why the finances of the infant government were precarious when the Constitution was signed in 1789.
-Revenue from states was nearly nothing -Public debt (interest) was piling up -Worthless paper money as plentiful as coins were scarce
America's national security was threatened in 1789 by......which came as a result of the.....
wars in Europe, French Revolution
In 1789, Thomas Jefferson and ____________ ______________ supported a limited government (Anti-Federalists), while _____________ ________________ and Alexander Hamilton wanted to increase the powers of government to strengthen the country (Federalists)
James Madison, George Washington
In 1789, the population of America was doubling every _____ years, and the first official census counted ______ million people. Though cities blossomed, America's population was still ______% rural. ________% lived east of the Appalachians.
25, 4, 90, 5
Settlement beyond the Appalachians in 1789 was mainly in which 3 new states? The settlers of the West were especially __________ and __________, and Spanish and British agents moved freely among the settlers.
Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio restless, disloyal
George Washington was the only president to be elected..... Washington was inaugurated in _________, in which city? Who was his Vice President?
unanimously by the Electoral College 1789, NYC John Adams
What were the first 2 precedents (not in Constitution) that Washington set? Who were the only 3 departments during Washington's time?
Cabinet and 2 terms in office Secretary of State-Thomas Jefferson Secretary of the Treasury-Alexander Hamilton Secretary of War-Henry Knox
What were the 2 ways to amend the Constitution? How was the Bill of Rights added?
1. New constitutional convention requested by 2/3 of states 2. 2/3 vote for amendments in Congress James Madison drafted them himself and guided them through Congress (feared that a new convention would unravel the Federalist victory in the struggle to approve the Constitution)
When was the Bill of Rights ratified? What is the Bill of Rights and what does it protect? Describe Amendments 1, 9, and 10 Because the amendments protected the rights of the state and individual, they slightly supported the ____________ cause
1791 First 10 amendments to the Constitution, protects some of the most important American principles 1: Freedom of religion, assembly, speech, the press 9: declares that, simply because some rights are specifically protected by the Bill of Rights, it doesn't mean all others are not safeguarded at all 10: Gives all power to the states that is not specifically given to the federal government by the Constitution Antifederalist
The early Judiciary Act of _________ did what 3 things? Who became the first chief justice?
1789 -Organized Supreme Court with chief justice and 5 associates -Formed federal district and circuit courts -Established office of the attorney general (Edmund Randolph) (established entire federal court system) John Jay
What were the 3 parts (name) of Hamilton's assumption plan to strengthen the US financially?
1. Assume debts of states/pay off national debt at par 2. Excise and tariff taxes 3. National bank
What did it mean to fund the national debt at par? How much had to be paid? What was the assumption part of the plan? How much had to be paid? Why did Hamilton advocate for assumption (how did he think it would benefit the Union)?
The national government had to pay off its debt at face-value, plus interest- total of $54 million The national government would also pay off state debts- total of $21.5 million Believed that it would gain the support of the rich, as their money would be in the hands of the federal government
Which states supported the assumption plan? Which did not? Why? How were southern states convinced to approve the plan in 1790?
Northern states (MA) had larger debts, so they supported the plan. Southern states (VA) had already repaid debts, so they did not support the plan. The federal district was moved to the Potomac River in exchange-close to Virginia-because they would gain commerce and power
What did Hamilton's assumption and funding at par plans increase the national debt to? Why did Hamilton call the national debt a "national blessing"?
$75 million He felt that it held the Union together, as the government owed creditors money, so they were more willing to stick with the government
As part of Hamilton's plan to repay debt, what law was passed by Congress in 1789? What did this law do? The law was designed for revenue, but also as a protection for.....However, America was still largely commercial and agricultural at this time.
Tariff law Placed an 8% tax on imports Infant American industries
Hamilton wanted additional revenue to pay off the huge national debt, so he passed an _______ tax in 17_____ What was this tax placed on? Who did it affect the most, and why?
Excise, 1791 Whiskey Backcountry distillers, as they had to turn their grain into whiskey to be able to transport it on bad roads
As part of his financial plan, Hamilton proposed a national _________, modeled after that of England (he supported England). What 4 things could this new institution provide for the country?
Bank -Place for Treasury to deposit money -Government would be major stockholder -Federal funds would remain in circulation and help businesses -Print paper money and establish a national currency
Did Thomas Jefferson support the national bank idea? Explain Jefferson's interpretation of the Constitution (3 points) Did Alexander Hamilton support the national bank idea? Explain Hamilton's interpretation of the Constitution (4 points)
No -Believed Constitution forbade what it did not permit -Powers not specifically given to federal government were reserved for the states (states should make banks) -Had a "strict"/"literal" interpretation of the Constitution Yes -Believed Constitution permitted with it did not forbid -Constitution authorizes government to pass any laws "necessary and proper" to carry out its powers (bank necessary to collect taxes and regulate trade) -"Implied powers" -"loose" interpretation and the "elastic clause" led to increased federal powers
The debate over the Hamilton's national bank was North vs. South. Did the North support the Bank? Why/why not? Did the South support the Bank? Why/why not?
Yes, it was a commercial and financial center No, it was mainly agricultural
The Bank of the United States was created by Congress in _________, and was chartered for _____ years. The bank was located in _____________. The bank had a capital of $10 million and the government owned _____ of it. Stock was sold to the _________
1791, 21 Philadelphia 1/5, public
The Whiskey Rebellion took place in southwestern ______________ in the year ____________. It was started over the _______ tax. Why were poor farmers so upset over the excise tax? These distillers created whiskey poles and cried, "__________ _____ _______ _____________". The also tarred and feathered ___________ _____________
Pennsylvania, 1794, excise Farmers distilled rye and corn into alcohol because it was cheaper to transport them to eastern markets than bales of grain. "Liberty and No Excise", revenue officers
In response to the Whiskey Rebellion, who did Washington call? How many showed up in response? When these people arrived in western Pennsylvania, what did they find (huge rebellion?)? What did Washington do to the 2 he convicted?
Militias of several states, 13,000 arrived No rebellion, crowds had completely dispersed Pardoned them
The Whiskey Rebellion was minor (3 rebels killed), but what positive effect did it have on Washington's new government? However, what did critics say?
It forced the government to be respected Washington used a sledgehammer to crush a gnat
List 5 of Hamilton's financial successes How did Hamilton's policies help to shape political groups? *Hamilton and Jefferson's personal feud became a political rivalry*
Funding, assumption, excise tax, the bank, suppression of Whiskey Rebellion The encroached on states' rights and gave more power to the federal government, which many opposed
When Washington was inaugurated, were political parties prominent? Explain. The Founding Fathers believed that organized opposition to the government went against the spirit of ________________ __________________ that was sparked by the Revolution.
No, they were completely unknown. Whigs/Tories, Federalists/Antifederalists were factions that emerged over hotly debated issues and then faded, not permanent parties. national unity
How have opposing political parties become extremely important to a stable democracy ("loyal opposition")?
The party in that is in power is checked by the party not in power ("loyal opposition"), as they know that the opposing party will win the next election if they do not govern based on the wishes of the people
The French Revolution began in ___________ and sparked ______ years of turmoil in Europe. The first years of the Revolution were peaceful, as the French attempted to restrain ____________ through a new Constitution The Americans were flattered and largely approved, as they thought of the French Revolution as....(only a few conservative Federalists were upset)
1789, 26 Louis XVI A second chapter for their own revolution
The French Revolution became less peaceful and more violent in __________, when France declared war on __________. Late in the year, France declared itself a _____________, and Americans celebrated by renaming streets- give two examples
1792, Austria republic King Street, NY---> Liberty Street, Royal Exchange Alley, Boston---->Equality Lane
Though France became a republic in ________, this liberty came with a price and the ___________ ____ ___________ began in 1793. The king was beheaded and the church was attacked during this time. How did Federalists feel about this violence? How did Jeffersonians feel? The Revolution soon evolved into a major war, as Britain was sucked in and America began to be affected. The war became another fight for control of the __________ ________________.
1792, Reign of Terror Federalists began to fear the apparently violent revolutionaries and disapproved. However, Jeffersonians felt that despotism could not become liberty completely peacefully, and that a few aristocratic heads were a cheap price to pay. Atlantic Ocean
The 1778 Franco-American alliance was meant to last forever- true or false? What did it require America to do? How was this relevant during the French Revolution-turned war? What did Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans believe America should do, regarding the alliance, once Britain joined the war? Why?
True Forced them to help France defend the West Indies, and Britain was expected to attack these islands one they joined the war They felt America should honor the alliance and support the French liberal ideas. They wanted to repay France for their freedom and go against Britain.
What did George Washington and Hamiltonians believe should be done, regarding the alliance, once Britain went to war against France? Why? *Washington's thinking was shared among many Founding Fathers, and Jefferson and Hamilton came to agree with him*
They wanted avoid war at all costs, for at least a generation. The nation was weak militarily and economically, and politically disunited. However, the population was rapidly increasing, so Washington believed that America could gain respect on the sea if they avoided European wars for a time.
The Neutrality Proclamation was issued in ____________, after the war broke out between Britain and France. What did the document state? What "tradition" did it help spread? How did Federalists and Jeffersonians each react to the Proclaimation? Why?
1793 America was to remain neutral in the conflict, citizens should not support either side, isolationist Federalists (pro-British) were happy. Jeffersonians (pro-French) were upset, especially because Washington did not consult Congress when passing it.
Who was Edmond Genet? Where did he arrive? What did Genet believe, and did he do as a result?
A French representative who came to Charleston, SC He believed that the Neutrality Proclamation did not reflect America's true beliefs. Took advantage of Franco-American alliance and started nonneutral activity
How did the Neutrality Proclamation demonstrate that alliances are based on self-interest?
1778, treaty was honored because America and France would gain. 1793, treaty not honored because only France would gain
Why did France never actually ask America to honor the treaty (why did America staying neutral benefit France)?
If America entered war and joined France, Britain would have blocked the American coast. This would have prevented them from sending food to the French West Indies, so America was more beneficial as a neutral provider.
Despite the Peace Treaty of 1783, Britain had remained on US frontier soil for ___ years. What were the two main reasons that the London government wanted to stay?
10 1. Profitable fur trade in Great Lakes area 2. Wanted to create an Indian buffer to keep the Americans from expanding their territory
On the US frontier, British often sold guns to Natives from which confederacy? Who was the chief of this confederacy? What territory did he claim was the American's northwestern border and the Native southeastern border? In 1790 and 1791, the Native armies defeated the Americans (one of their worst frontier defeats, ________ were killed) on this frontier. The American generals were _____________ ___________ and ______________ ___ ____________.
Miami Confederacy Little Turtle Ohio River hundreds, Josiah Harmar, Arthur St. Clair
The British turned against the Miamis at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, which was fought in _______, against American General __________ __________________ ___________________. The Miamis were forced to sign a peace treaty in _______ to end the battle, known as the Treaty of ____________. What did this treaty do? How did it recognize the power of the Natives?
1794, "Mad Anthony" Wayne 1795, Greenville Said Confederacy gave up much land in the Old Northwest (Indiana and Ohio), in exchange for $20,000 and hunting rights. Natives felt that the treaty limited the ability of the government to push them away.
Though America remained neutral (should have avoided British blockades that kept them from sending food to the French West Indies), what did the British do? What affect did this (especially impressment) have on Federalists and Jeffersonians?
Ignored American neutrality and seized American ships in the West Indies, as well as impressing many seamen and throwing hundreds into prison. Jeffersonians were extremely upset and said America should fight Britain to defend its rights, or at least stop supplies going to Britain with an embargo. However, Federalists discouraged this because Hamilton's financial plan relied heavily on trade with Britain, the world's largest commercial empire.
In an attempt to avoid joining the Britian/France war, who did Washington send to London in 1794? What 3 things did Jay's Treaty state? What 2 things did it not mention?
John Jay -Britain would evacuate US soil -Britain would pay damages for recent seizures of US ships -America would pay debts owed to Britain from before the Revolution -Did NOT address future British seizures of American ships/impressment, or prevent Britain from arming Natives
What were two reasons why Jeffersonians were outraged by Jay's Treaty (Federalist)? Even George Washington's popularity was affected by Jay's Treaty- true or false?
-Felt as if they were surrendering to Britain -South was betrayed- Jeffersonian Southern planters would have to pay most of the debts from before the war, while Northern Federalist shippers would be paid for ship seizing damages True
Spain feared that, after Jay's Treaty, America may ally with ________. To prevent this, they proposed Pinckney's Treaty of ________, which gave America what?
Britain 1795, gave America everything they demanded- free navigation of Mississippi, right of deposit at New Orleans, right to disputed territory of western Florida
What did Washington advise in his Farewell Address of _______? What were 4 of Washington's political contributions?
precedent, Franklin D. Roosevelt 1796, to avoid permanent alliances and to only make temporary alliance for "extraordinary emergencies" -Central government solidly established -West expanding -Merchant marine on the seas -Nation had stayed out of foreign conflicts
The election of 1796 was between _______ ___________ (Federalist) and _________ _____________ (Democratic-Republican)
John Adams, Thomas Jefferson
John Adams won the election of 1796 by a narrow margin, with most support in _____________, and __________ became vice president. However, the ______ Amendment made it impossible for the vice president and president to be from different parties Adams was respected, but irritated many and had no desire to appeal to the _______________
NE, Jefferson 12th masses
What 2 things were issues for John Adams, when he stepped into the presidency? Hamilton resigned from Treasury in 1795 and became.....
1. Violent quarrel with France was possible at any moment when Adams was elected 2. Adams despised by Hamilton- Hamilton secretly worked with the cabinet to plot against the president head of the war faction of the Federalists
Why was France upset over Jay's Treaty? What two things did they do as revenge?
Saw it as step towards alliance with Britain and violated the Franco-American Treaty of 1778 1. Seized 300 American merchant ships by mid-1797 2.Refused to accept American envoy and threatened to arrest him
To avoid war with France after they were upset by Jay's Treaty, what did John Adams do? What happened, and what was this event known as?
Sent 3 men to France, including John Marshall Greeted by 3 French representatives (X, Y, Z) and asked to pay a bribe of $250,000 to talk with Talleyrand, the French foreign minister. Known as the X, Y, Z Affair
What became a slogan after the XYZ Affair? Name 4 war preparations that began after the XYZ Affair
"Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute" -Navy Department created -3-ship navy expanded -United States Marine Corps reestablished -Army of 10,000 men authorized (not raised)
In response to the XYZ Affair, fighting broke out between France and America- what was this called? The undeclared war lasted 2.5 years (______-__________)
Quasi War 1798-1800
Did Talleyrand want to go to war with America after the XYZ Affair? So, what did Talleyrand say that America could do, to avoid fighting?
No Send a new minister, who would be met with respect
What did Adams in 1799 (after XYZ Affair) as one last attempt for peace with France? Which group was upset for this? Why?
Suggested a name to Senate for a new minister to send to France Hamiltonians (pro-British), especially the war-hawks
When the new envoys reached France in 1800, who was in charge? How did his goals benefit America? What was treaty was created in 1800, between France and America? What did it say?
Napoleon Bonaparte He wanted to end the American squabble and focus on gaining power in both Europe and the New World (Louisiana) Convention of 1800, which ended the 22-year alliance of 1778 and said US would pay for damage to their own ships
Adams avoided war when he chose to send another envoy to France, but what else did he do for the nation? Explain Maintaining peace with France in 1800 was Adams' largest contribution, but his ____________ suffered
He made possible the purchase of Louisiana 3 years later. If France had fought America, Napoleon would have not sold Jefferson the territory popularity
In _________, Federalists took advantage of the present anti-French mindset and passed 3 laws designed to minimize the Jeffersonians Name these 3 laws/acts
1798 Naturalization Act, Alien Laws, Sedition Act
What was the Naturalization Act? Why was it passed? What were the Alien Laws?
This law changed residence requirements for citizenship from 5 to 14 years. It was passed because most immigrants were turned away by aristocratic Federalists, so they joined the Jeffersonians These laws gave the president the power to deport immigrants considered dangerous at any time, and the power to imprison or deport them during a war, if they were from an enemy nation
What was the Sedition Act? When was is passed? The Act was a Federalist attempt to crush ____________ _________ and silence the ____________ ______ people were convicted under this Act. Describe Congressman Matthew Lyon's trial and sentence The Sedition Act was planned to expire in ______, so it could not be used against Federalists if they lost the next election
Passed in 1798, this act said that anyone who published/said harmful, false, or scandalous information about the government or its officials would be fined or imprisoned Free speech/press, opposition 10, Lyon sentenced to 4 months in jail for writing negatively of John Adams 1801
Though Jeffersonians objected, the Alien and Sedition Acts received much support, especially due to the ________________ hysteria. Federalists became so popular that they scored their largest victory during the congressional elections of _____-_______
What did 2 things did Jefferson fear after the Sedition Act was passed?
1. That Federalists would try and wipe out other Constitutional freedoms, in addition to freedom of the press and speech 2. That his party would be wiped out, and the country would be a one-party dictatorship
What did the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions propose/what were major ideas in them? What year were the passed? Who wrote each? Did states agree with the Resolutions? What did Federalists believe?
Supported the "compact theory," idea that the states should decide if the government had overstepped its granted powers. Jefferson the Alien and Sedition Acts were not constitutional, so states had the right to nullify/cancel them 1798, Jefferson passed Kentucky and Madison passed Virginia Most states refused to accept them. Federalists claimed that the people (not states) had made the Constitution, so only the Supreme Court had the power to nullify federal laws (eventually became law, though not actually in the Constitution)
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolves supported ______________ rights. They were later used by the South to support _____________ and ____________. Madison and Jefferson had been trying to preserve the Union by creating the Resolutions, and their only actual goal was to nullify _________________ power (not specifically the Sedition and Alien Acts) in the upcoming election
states' nullification and secession Federalist
Hamiltonions: -distrusted complete democracy, and advocated for government by the "____________ __________" -powerful central government to crush ___________ _____________ (Shays Rebellion), protect the wealthy, promote foreign trade, limit state power -believed government should support private __________, but not interfere -mainly made up of ___________, ______________, and _____________ along the Atlantic seaboard
best people, democratic excesses, enterprise, merchants, manufacturers, shippers
Jeffersonians: -believed best government was one that governed the _________; power should be left to ___________ -Feared a dictatorship would develop, so believed central authority should be minimized through a __________ interpretation of the Constitution -National debt was a ________ -Favored _____________ and wanted no special privileges for manufacturing -Followers came from...
least, states, strict, curse, agriculture, south+southwest,
Jefferson advocated for rule of the people, and he believed everyone should vote. True or false? Explain Why did Jefferson fear landless voters as much as illiterate voters? What did he feel would prevent this?
False- he felt only literate, white men who could inform themselves and make responsible decisions should be given the right to vote. He felt the ignorant could be taught, but if they were not, they could not govern. Jefferson thought the landless citizens would be pushed around by the propertied voters. He felt slavery could prevent it, as a slave system would allow the poor farmers in the South to continue owning their own farms. Without slavery, they would have to become cheap labor for tobacco and rice plantations.
Jefferson believed strongly in _______________ of the ________________, and would rather have newspapers without government than a government without newspapers. Why was this so important to him?
freedom of the press, as it allowed any citizen to expose tyranny
What were 3 characteristics of Hamilton's ideas about foreign policy? What were 3 characteristics of Jefferson's ideas about foreign policy?
1. Looked outward and eastward 2. Wanted a strong government that would command respect abroad for commerical interests 3. Foreign trade with Britain important 1. Inward and westward 2. Wanted to focus on strengthening democracy at home, especially beyond the Appalachians, instead of going abroad 3. Supported liberal ideas of French Revolution