American Pageant Chapter 1

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1

Black Legend

the mistaken belief that the conquistadors brought only misery to the New World, when in fact they also laid the foundations for nations

2

Christoper Columbus

explorer funded by Ferdinand and Isabella, tried to find a water route to Asia but landed in the West Indies

3

Conquistadors

Spanish conquerors in the New World, comprised of soldiers, peasants, artisans, and middle class

4

Encomienda

Spanish system that gave Indians to the colonists in return for the promise to try and Christianize them. "Gold, God, and Glory."

5

Ferdinand and Isabella

married to unite the kingdom of Spain, reconquered Spain from the Muslims, funded Columbus

6

Anasazi

ancient civilization in southwestern US, declined by about 1300

7

Cahokia

Mississippian settlement near present-day St. Louis erected by natives known as mound builders

8

Iroquois

northeastern Indian nation, developed an organized government and military

9

Sugar Revolution

increase in the European demand for sugar, fueled by its success in the Caribbean

10

Taino

native people of Hispaniola, population was decimated by Spanish invasion

11

Three sisters agriculture

Native American method of planting corn, beans, and squash together

12

Ponce de Leon

Spanish explorer of Florida, which he thought was an island, looked for gold

13

Cortez

Spanish conqueror of Mexico, destroyed Tenochtitlan and the Aztecs

14

Mission Indians

Indians that were adopted into Christian missions and taught Christianity and crafts

15

Coronado

searched for fabled golden cities, explored Arizona, Kansas and New Mexico, discovered Grand Canyon and bison

16

Tidewater region

region of flat, low-lying plains along the coast

17

Pizarro

Spanish explorer who defeated the Incas in Peru

18

Joint stock companies

small investors combined their funds to pay for expeditions to the New World

19

Mestizos

people of mixed European and Native American descent

20

Mississippian culture

North American civilization of mound builders with a prosperous society

21

Montezuma

king of the Aztecs when Cortez landed in Mexico

22

Pope's Rebellion

Pueblo uprising in New Mexico that destroyed Catholic churches and took control for almost 50 years

23

Queen Elizabeth

queen of England, founded the Anglican Church, supported joint stock companies, pushed for discovery in the New World

24

Spanish Armada

huge Spanish fleet that was used to protect holding in the New World, sent to conquer England in 1588, its defeat was the beginning of the end for Spain

25

Tenochtitlan

capital city of the Aztecs, conquered by Cortez, Mexico City was built on the same site

26

Treaty of Tordesilles

divided the world between Spain and Portugal

27

Balboa

discovered the Pacific Ocean

28

Maize

form of North American corn, staple of many Native American cultures

29

Iroquois Confederation

native alliance of five, later six tribes that played a strategic role in the French and British struggle for control of colonial North America

30

Colombian Exchange

name given to the intentional and unintentional trans Atlantic exchange of goods, ideas, religion, people and disease

31

Juan de Sepulveda

Spanish theologian who was a proponent of colonial slavery

32

Bartolome de Las Casas

Spanish historian and social reformer whose book on Spain's colonial empire focused on the Spanish atrocities toward native people