American Pageant Chapter 16

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1

As a result of the introduction of the cotton gin, slavery was

reinvigorated

2

Members of the planter aristocracy dominated

politics and society in the South

3

All of the following were true of the American cotton economy under Cotton Kingdom except

quick profits from cotton drew planters to its economic enterprise

4

Plantation agriculture was wasteful largely because

its excessive cultivation of cotton despoiled the good earth

5

Plantation mistresses commanded a sizeable household staff of mostly

female slaves

6

Plantation agriculture was

economically unstable and wasteful

7

The plantation system of the Cotton South was increasingly

monopolistic

8

All of the following were weaknesses of the slave plantation system except

that its land continued to remain in the hands of small farmers

9

German and Irish immigration to the South was discouraged by

competition with slave labor

10

As their main crop, southern subsistence farmers raised

corn

11

Most white southerners were

subsidence farmers

12

All told, only about 1⁄4 of white southerners

owned slaves or belonged to a slaveholding family

13

"We must get rid of slavery or we must get rid of freedom" -

Ralph Waldo Emerson

14

By the mid-nineteenth century, most slaves

lived on large plantations

15

Most slaves in the South were owned by

plantation owners

16

The majority of southern whites owned no slaves because

they could not afford the purchase price

17

The most pro-Union of the white southerners were

people with northern economic interests

18

Some southern slaves gained their freedom as a result of

purchasing their way out of slavery

19

The great increase of the slave population in the first half of the nineteenth century was largely due to

natural reproduction

20

Northern attitudes toward free blacks can best be described as

liking the individual but despising the race

21

For free blacks living in the North

discrimination was common

22

The profitable southern slave system hobbled the economic development of

the region as a whole

23

Regarding work assignments, slaves were

generally spared dangerous work

24

Perhaps the slave's greatest horror, and the theme of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, was the

enforced separation of slave families

25

By 1860, slaves were concentrated in the

"black belt" located in the Deep South states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana

26

As a substitute for the wage-incentive system, slaveowners most often used

the whip as a motivator

27

By 1860, life for slaves was most difficult in

the newer states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana

28

Forced separation of spouses, parents, and children was most common on

small plantations and in the upper South

29

Most slaves were raised in

stable two-parent households

30

One way slaves did not fight the system was by

refusing to get an education

31

As a result of white southerners' brutal treatment of their slaves and their fear of potential slave rebellions,

the South developed a theory of biological racial superiority

32

In the pre-Civil War South, the most uncommon and least successful form of slave resistance was

armed insurrection

33

John Quincy Adams, Nat Turner, David Walker, Denmark Vesey, and Gabriel. What doesn't belong?

John Quincy Adams

34

The idea of transporting blacks back to Africa was supported by

the black leader Martin Delaney

35

Match each abolitionist below with his publication.

William Lloyd Garrison - The Liberator Theodore Dwight Weld - American Slavery as It Is Frederick Douglass - Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass David Walker - The Appeal

36

Know the following in chronological order:

American Colonization Society (1816), American Anti-Slavery Society (1833), Liberty party (1840)

37

William Lloyd Garrison pledged his dedication to

the immediate abolition of slavery in the South

38

Match each abolitionist below with his role in the movement.

Wendell Phillips - abolitionist golden trumpet Frederick Douglass - black abolitionist Elijah P. Lovejoy - abolitionist martyr William Lloyd Garrison - abolitionist newspaper publisher

39

Many abolitionists turned to political action in 1840 when

they backed the presidential candidate of the Liberty Party

40

The voice of white southern abolitionism fell silent at the beginning of the

1830s

41

In arguing for the continuation of slavery after 1830, southerners placed themselves

in opposition to much of the rest of the Western world

42

Those in the North who opposed the abolitionists believed that

these opponents of slavery were creating disorder in America

43

Conclusions made my Ulrich B. Phillips were that:

slaves were racially inferior, slavery was a dying economic institution, planters treated their slaves with kindly paternalism, and that salves were passive by nature, and did not abhor slavery

44

The South became the Cotton Kingdom in the early nineteenth century because of:

Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin, the new profitability of short-staple cotton, and the opening of rich river bottomlands in the Gulf Coast states

45

Cotton became important to the prosperity of the North as well as the South because;

northern merchants handled the shipping of southern cotton and that cotton accounted for about half the value of all United States exports after 1840

46

The pre-Civil War South was characterized by;

a well-developed martial spirit, the lack of free, tax-supported public education, a widening gap between rich and poor, a ruling planter aristocracy, a growing hostility to free speech and a free press

47

Even those who did not own slaves in the pre-Civil War South supported that institution because

they dreamed of one day owning slaves themselves presumed themselves racially superior to black slaves

48

Before the Civil War, free blacks were often the mulatto offspring of white fathers and black mothers, were often

forbidden basic civil rights, were disliked in the North as well as the South

49

Slaves were regarded primarily as

financial investments by their owners, the primary form of wealth in the South, and profitable for their owners

50

The slave culture was characterized by a hybrid religion of

Christianity and African elements, widespread illiteracy, and subtle forms of resistance

51

After 1830, the abolitionist movement took a new, more energetic tone, encouraged by

the success of the British having slavery abolished in the British West Indies, and the religious spirit of the Second Great Awakening

52

The South's "positive good" argument for slavery claimed that

slavery was supported by the Bible, and the Constitution, slavery converted the barbaric Africans to Christianity, slaves were treated as members of the family, and they were better off than most northern wage earners

53

After 1830, most people in the North held that the Constitution

sanctioned slavery and were alarmed by the radical abolitionists