American Pageant Chapters 17, 18, 19

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1

John Tyler

One-term president after William Henry Harrison; saw the annexation of Texas

2

Manifest Destiny

Belief that God intended the US to expand from coast to coast

3

Caroline Incident

Britain set fire to & sank a US ship in the Niagara River, almost led to war with Britain

4

James K. Polk

11th president; oversaw the purchase of California, Oregon dispute, lowered tariffs, established an independent treasury

5

Creole Incident

130 slaves took control of a ship, Britain offered asylum in the Bahamas; increased tensions between the US and Britain

6

Lame-duck President

Time after a new president is elected, but has not yet been inaugurated. (Today, from Nov. - Jan. 20)

7

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Ended Mexican-American War, established Mexico-Texas boundary at the Rio Grande

8

Oregon Trail

2,000 mile journey from Independence, MO to Oregon in which 1,000s of people died along the way

9

Wilmot Proviso

Belief that slavery should not exist in ANY territory gained in Mexican-American War

10

Transcendalism

1800s belief that all things in nature are tied to God; therefore all is divine. Emphasized living a simple life and celebrating the truth found in nature and in personal emotion and imagination; Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau.

11

"Fifty-four forty or fight"

Slogan used in 1844 presidential election; called for US to annex Oregon territory

12

Aroostook War

Series of clashes between American and Canadian lumberjacks in disputed territory of northern Maine; permanent boundary agreed upon in 1842.

13

Walker Tariff

1846 - Sponsored by Polk's Sec. of Treasury, Robert J. Walker, it lowered tariff. Introduced warehouse system of storing goods until duty is paid.

14

Spot Resolutions

Measures introduced by Illinois congressman Abe Lincoln, questioning President Polk's justification for war with Mexico. Lincoln asked precisely where Mexican forces attacked US troops.

15

California Bear Flag Republic

Short-lived West Coast republic proclaimed by US rebels against Mexicans just before U.S. troops arrived in province.

16

Conscience Whigs

Anti-slavery Whigs opposed both the Texas annexation and Mexican War on moral grounds.

17

Old Tippecanoe

Nickname for William Henry Harrison

18

Third War with England

"War" in which British and US writers "fought" with scathing written commentaries about each other. Lingering Ant-British feeling in US, after two wars, British "Travel Books" that showed US as barbaric. Charles Dickens prominent on the British side.

19

Lone Star Republic

Nickname for Texas after it won independence from Mexico in 1836

20

"Texas or Disunion"

Shouted by Southern hotheads wanting to annex Texas Foes of expansion against annexation of Texas; most Southerners favored Texan annexation because they thought it would become slave territory; Northerners opposed for same reason

21

Oregon Territory

Split between U.S. and Great Britain, the U.S. had finally achieved its goal of Manifest Destiny.

22

Young Hickory

Nickname for James Polk due to his similar beliefs and birthplace as Andrew Jackson

23

Four Point Program

Polk developed plan & achieved it completely in under four years. Goal #1: lower tariff; Goal #2: restore independent treasury. Goal #3: annex California. Goal #4: settle Oregon dispute.

24

Santa Anna

Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)

25

General Winfield Scott

Led U.S. forces' march on Mexico City during the Mexican War. He took the city and ended the war.

26

Chapultepec

Former fort outside of Mexico City; site of an 1847 battle between the United States and Mexico

27

John C. Calhoun

(1830s-40s) Proponent of the South's "peculiar institution" and of the Fugitive Slave Law. The law forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the Senate that slavery was needed in the South. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class and that slavery could be considered a "positive good." He was the Southern representative of the "Great Triumvirate."

28

Winfield Scott

Whig candidate in the Election of 1852. He was considered an impressive figure but one whose personality and support of the Compromise of 1850 put off many voters.. Southerners did not find his loyalty to the fugitive slave law sincere, and Northerners deplored his support of the same law. He lost to Pierce.

29

Martin Van Buren

Presidential Candidate for the Free Soil Party in 1848.

30

Daniel Webster

Je supported Clay's proposals and called for an end to the bitter sectionalism that was dividing the nation. He argued for Clay's compromise in order to preserve the Union. He was the Northern member of the "Great Triumvirate."

31

Henry Clay

Distinguished Senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." He outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. He died before it was passed. He was the "Western" voice in the "Great Triumvirate" and is remembered as well for his "American System."

32

Free Soil party

Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.

33

Fugitive Slave Law

Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.

34

"personal liberty laws"

pre-Civil War laws passed by Northern state governments to counteract the provisions of the Fugitive Slave Acts and to protect escaped slaves and free blacks settled in the North, by giving them the right to a jury trial.

35

Gadsden Purchase

Agreement w/ Mexico that gave the US parts of present-day New Mexico & Arizona in exchange for $10 million; all but completed the continental expansion envisioned by those who believed in Manifest Destiny.

36

California gold rush

After the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill right after the end of the Mexican American War in 1848, in 1849 California attracted a rush of people all over the country and world to San Francisco.

37

Seventh of March Speech

This was a famous speech given by Daniel Webster when he was trying to work out the Compromise of 1850. In it, he fought for compromise. He asked for a stricter fugitive slave law and said that there was no need to legislate slavery in the territories because the land was not fit for it. His speech became widely printed and read, and it increased the popularity of Union and compromise.

38

John C. Fremont

American military officer, explorer- the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States-the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery.